Subject Engineering Power System Engineering

Question

SOLAR ENERGY
It is estimated that Glasgow will need 3.2 x 107 MWh per year of electricity in 2017. A plan to meet this demand completely by solar energy is to be evaluated. Assume fixed solar panels of efficiency 20% and the ground reflection (albedo) to be 0.2.
1. Find the ideal tilt and azimuth angle for Glasgow.
2. What is the average daily electricity demand?
3. Which day of the year has the lowest number of daylight hours? How many hours of daylight are there on that day?
4. Between the sunrise hour angle and sunset hour angle, using an Excel spread sheet calculate at equal steps of 7.5o hour angles
(a) The zenith angle.
(b) The angle of incidence.
(c) The global irradiance.
(d) The total irradiance.
(e) The time average of the total irradiance
(f) The answer from (e) multiplied by the number of daylight hours.
5. Find the total area of solar photovoltaic that would be required to meet the demand on this day.
Write a brief report (approx. 1500 words plus any output) describing the analysis and results:
The report should follow the recommended structure below.
1 Introduction: This will cover the background theory of solar energy and PV cells.
2 Describe and explain your reasoning for each of your calculations.
3 Results: Present your results as Excel tables, and graphs, etc.
4 Discussion and Conclusion: Discuss the results of the analysis.
5 References. You are expected to undertake some additional background reading on solar generation, which should be referenced.

Solution Preview

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INTRODUCTION:
Solar energy is radiant heat and light from the sun harnessed by using a range of continuously evolving technologies such as solar PV, solar thermal energy, solar heating, solar architecture and artificial photosynthesis.
It is a significant source of renewable energy and its technologies are widely characterized as either active solar or passive solar depending on way they capture and distribute the solar energy or transform it into solar power. Active solar techniques contain the use of concentrated solar power, PV systems and solar-water heating to use the energy. Passive solar techniques include orientation of a building towards the Sun, selecting materials with relevant thermal mass or light dispersing properties, and designing spaces that naturally circulate air.
At the upper atmosphere the Earth receives about 174 PW of incoming solar radiation. Approximately 30% is reflected back to the space while the rest is absorbed by land masses, oceans and clouds.
Solar energy is also used by different natural effects and appears in nature in some other forms of energy. They are indirect forms of energy. Solar energy is “mother” of all forms of energy- as Khan describe it in his book, whether they were conventional or non-conventional, renewable or non-renewable. Various sources of energy find their origin in the sun as mentioned below:
1. Wind Energy
2. Biomass Energy
3. Tidal Energy
4. Ocean Wave Energy
5. Ocean Thermal Energy
6. Fossil Fuels and Other Organic Chemicals
7. Hydro Energy...

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