What is a buffer overflow attack. How does a buffer overflow work? Once a buffer overflow is intentionally triggered, what can an attacker do? What can be done to prevent it?
In describing buffer overflows, you should examine heap- and stack-based overflows.
Consider this question in terms of both the application, compiler, operating system, and the hardware architecture/system itself. Be sure to discuss the following points in your detailed description:
• What is Data Execution Protection?
• What is Address Space Layout Randomization?
• What compiler-related settings can be used to thwart buffer overflows?
• What programmer-related actions can be taken to prevent buffer overflows?
Be sure to cite the sources of information for your response.

Question 1
The security kernel which implements the reference monitor is found at what protection ring level?
Ring 0
Ring 1
Ring 2
Ring 4

Question 2
Which of the following statements are correct regarding security-related computer hardware? (Select all that apply.)
Computer processors can maintain data integrity, but cannot maintain confidentiality.
Computer processors can maintain confidentiality, but cannot maintain data integrity.
Computer processors provide bits which determine the access level of the executing program.
Computer security is partly enforced through computer traps, whereby the application requests an operation, but cannot control its execution. The operating system controls the trap's execution, and then returns control to the application.

Question 3
Which of the following standards refer to network architectures? (Check all that apply.)
ITU-T X.800
ISO 7498-1
ITU-T X.805

Question 5
Which operating systems support running multiple processes simultaneously?
Basic Input-Output Systems (BIOS).
Embedded (Real-time) Operating Systems
Minimized General Purpose Operating Systems
General Purpose Operating Systems

Question 6
Which of the following security activities can occur at every layer of the ITU-T X.805 layered hierarchy? (Select all that apply.)

Question 7
The kernel performs which of the following tasks? (Check all that apply.)
Memory management
Displaying webpages
Scheduling which applications may use the central processor (CPU)
User access to database information
Providing graphical user-system interfaces (desk top management).
Controlling invocation of interrupts

Question 8
Which of the following may connect to a next-generation core network? (Check all that apply.)
3G Mobile Networks
The Public Switched Telephone Network
WiMAX Networks
Digital Subscriber Line Networks
Fax Networks

Question 9
Select the approach that represents the most effective defensive method that an organization can utilize to protect the data on an employee laptop in the event the laptop is stolen.
Use integrity protection programs such as MD5 and SHA to verify the validity of installed programs
Place labels on the laptop offering a reward for stolen or missing units
Issue laptop users locking cables to secure the units and prevent their theft
Encrypt the hard drives

Question 10
In what form does a smartcard internally store a user's private key?
The smartcard internally stores a user's private key as cipher-text produced by symmetrically encrypting the private key.
The smartcard internally stores a user's private key as clear-text.
The smartcard internally stores a user's private key as a message digest produced by a cryptographically secure hash algorithm.
None of these.

Question 11
Which of the following must an operating system prevent non-admin users from doing?
Modify parts of the operating system
Access computer system services
Directly invoke kernel functionality
Misuse the operating system

Question 12
Which type of operating system provides a multitasking os with a full complement of filesystem, graphical interface, and other applications?
Type 4
Type 1
Type 0
Type 3

Question 13
Which of the following os kernel components implements the reference monitor?
Security kernel
Resource manager
Memory mapper
Process scheduler

Question 14
Which of the following statements correctly describe aspects of operating system kernels. (Check all that apply.)
The operating system security kernel ultimately mediates the security policies in the operating system.
The access control mechanism supported by operating system kernels is restricted to capability lists.
The development and implementation of operating system kernels is a new area, and so kernels are a lightly researched area.
An operating system kernel allows access to hardware resources on a system by software on that same system.

Question 15
Which ITU-T standard provides a non-repudiation framework?
ITU-T X.810
ITU-T X.813
ITU-T X.815
ITU-T X.816

Question 16
Which of the following best describes the reference monitor?
A software component that controls which process will be allowed to use the CPU
An access control concept that determines if a subject (a process, for example) is authorized to access an object
A software component that isolates processes and manages memory
A software component that works in the center protection ring and provides interfaces between trusted and untrusted objects

Question 17
Which of the following is a layer in a telecommunications network as defined by ITU-T X.805? (Select all that apply.)
a. Infrastructure security layer
b. Network security layer
c. Services security layer
d. Application security layer

Question 18
What is the primary purpose of Base and Bounds registers?
As a countermeasure to buffer overflows
For t ime sharing of system resources, mainly the CPU
Enforcement of interrupts
Control where software can be loaded into memory and keep programs from modifying the memory used by other programs.

Question 19
Which of the following are ways that an operating systems can provide security protection between user programs? (Select all that apply.)
a. By providing a separate address space for different processes
b. By providing a fence register
c. By enforcing user permissions to an object
d. By enforcing the declarations of public and private for objects

Question 20
Which of the following statements are true regarding an embedded operating system? (Select all that are true.)
Speed is at a higher priority than with a general purpose os
Provide support for multiple application processes
Frequently used with communications hardware
Use a ring structure
All security functions are contained within a single executable file

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These solutions may offer step-by-step problem-solving explanations or good writing examples that include modern styles of formatting and construction of bibliographies out of text citations and references. Students may use these solutions for personal skill-building and practice. Unethical use is strictly forbidden.

Buffer overflow errors are characterized by overwriting the memory fragment of the process. This is either intentional or unintentional. IP (Instruction Pointer), BP (Base Pointer) Overwriting other register values causes exception segmentation errors and other errors. Typically, these errors terminate the execution of the application in an unexpected way. Manipulating a char of type char results in a buffer overflow error.
Buffer overflow may...

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