Your assignment is to write a 4-6-page paper (@1250-1800 words) on ...

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Your assignment is to write a 4-6-page paper (@1250-1800 words) on one of the following topics. You are expected to cite at least three sources (outside of the course text) in supporting your thesis on your chosen topic.

Please follow these guidelines:

Double-space the paper, using Times New Roman font in 12-point.
Use MLA or APA formatting and documentation style.
Cite correctly. Put all copied words, phrases, sentences, etc. in quotation marks and cite all paraphrased words, ideas, and arguments correctly.
Include examples of art works to support your analysis. (Feel free to include illustrations in your paper.)
Use the art vocabulary from Chapters 4 and 5 to describe the art works
Use originality in your thinking, analysis and selection of art works

Write a paper that addresses this statement: “The definition of ‘art’ has shifted and changed over time and across cultures.” Refer to specific works of art, artists, styles, conventions, and/or movements that serve as examples to support your agreement or disagreement with this statement.
Define and discuss the terms “abstraction,” “representational,” and “nonrepresentational” in relation to two works of art per term. Make sure that the works you discuss for each term were created either in two different centuries or in two different cultures.
First, discuss the traditional arts and the historical attitude toward art of one of these cultures: India, China, or Japan. Second, explain when and how the culture came into contact with other cultures—especially Western cultures—and the results of that contact on both.
Identify, compare and contrast three artists from different centuries who have used their art to comment on social or political issues, citing specific works in support of your selections. Comment on the reasons that you feel these artists have succeeded or failed in producing recognition or change through their art.
Referring to specific works and/or artists, compare and contrast at least three varying interpretations of the human body from prehistory to the present. Include the attitudes towards the human body in each culture. Describe the impact of the different artists’ styles and representations of the body and identify the artists or work that you consider most interesting or compelling and explain why you think so.
Discuss the influence of African art on European and American art from the 19th century through the present, citing specific works, artists, styles, or movements that have been influential.
Compare and contrast the themes, purposes, media, and styles of the arts of any Native American and/or Mesoamerican cultures with another culture outside of North and South America, that we have studied.
Discuss the influence of photography on the art of the late 19th and 20th centuries, citing specific uses of photography. Discuss the shifting and sharing of the functions and purposes of art by painting, drawing, and photography. Include the impact of photography on painting.
Discuss, compare and contrast at least five technological advances, occurring in at least five different centuries, which have changed the media and/or purposes of art in major ways.
List and discuss at least five themes of art, identifying and describing two examples of works (from different centuries or cultures) that relate to each theme. Look for original and provocative examples of each theme, and compare and contrast each pair.
Your paper should be clearly and carefully written. You must be correct on points of content, but points will also be taken off for grammatical errors, incorrect documentation and citation style, careless errors, awkward phrasing, poor sentence construction, and illogical or confusing organization.

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The Aztecs, a large and powerful Mesoamerican people who conquered several territories over a 300-year span before Spanish conquistadores overtook them, use art and architecture to represent their domination of their conquered territories and peoples. In particular, sculptures found at religious sites depict a female deity, the moon goddess, after being subjugated by a stronger male deity, the sun god, as representing Aztec strength and power in conquering. By contrast, the Harappan of the Indus Valley Civilizations three thousand years before, used a representation of a strong female deity dominating dangerous animals to show strength and power.

1. Aztec culture in Mesoamerica
From the 14th to the 16th centuries, the Aztecs dominated most of Mesoamerica (Cartwright 2014; Getlein 2010). Expanding its borders through military conquests, Aztec art demonstrated Aztec legends of strength and domination (Cartwright 2014; Getlein 2010; Milbrath 1996). Using stone sculpture, architecture, pottery, metalwork, and body art, the Aztec artwork represented people, animals, plants, and gods, especially those related to fertility and agriculture (Cartwright 2014).
Unfortunately, the Spanish conquistadors melted down much of the Aztec metalwork of gold and silver, as well as razed the pyramids constructed, building Mexico City on top of the great Aztec capital of Tenochtitlán (Cartwright 2014). However, we know that Tenochtitlán had massive pyramids and temple platforms, and some of the art objects were sent to Europe (Cartwright 2014).
Aztec art reinforced their military and cultural dominance over the tribes they conquered across Mesoamerica (Cartwright...
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