Question

Identify two causes of the European Great Depression of the 1870s to 1890s.

Summarize the reasons why British industry was falling behind that of Germany and the United States by the late 19th century.

Identify which industries suffered and which benefitted and why from state policies of Economic Nationalism by the later 19th century.

Identify three possible motives for the rise of overseas imperialism and conquest by European states by the later 19th century.

Identify two major effects that the conquest and administration of empires by European states had those states themselves.

Identify why Germany’s war effort in the First World War began to collapse by late 1918 after over four years of brutal war.

Briefly identify an example of each the following in E. Cabet’s Voyage in Icarie of 1842 in a few short sentences:
- Provision for public health and safety
- The organization of city planning
- Cultural/educational amenities for citizens of Icarie
- The protection of public morals and “decency” in public spaces as envisioned by Cabet

Identify what Karl Marx claimed were the motivations behind the following issues connected with the U.S. Civil War in his October 1861 article on “The North American Civil War”:   
- Why poor southern whites supported slavery and slave holders despite not owning slaves themselves.
- The connection between the interests of slave-holders and the U.S. government’s foreign policy of conquests and occupations in North America (Texas, the Mexican Cession, Florida, etc.) during the 19th century
- Why the slaver-holder class of the South decided to launch its rebellion against the Union in 1860-61
- How the southern slaver-holder class succeed in forcing the free states of the North to accept slavery over ever-greater parts of the U.S. and its territories before 1860.

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Causes of the European Great Depression of 1870s and 1890s
One of the major causes of the prolonged European Great Depression was the failure of small businesses to function in the society due to the declining nature of their workforces. As a result, many of them shut down while others went bankrupt. Such a development produced detrimental consequences for the economy. An additional cause of the depression was the Panic of 1873. As such, every part of the world experienced riots along with stock crashes. According to Grossman and Meissner (2010), the Panic of 1873 triggered catastrophic deleveraging in which the chief aim was to sell assets and increase the capital reserves. This selloff apparently led to deflation and a collapse in the prices of assets. This, in turn, triggered the financial institutions to sell more asserts, which resulted into even further deflation and strained capital ratios....

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