In the Muslim world from c. 600 to 1100 C.E., which historical events, processes, and/or encounters, would you say, have been the most enduring and the most defining for the Muslim world and the world beyond? Discuss why.

The paper should be double space and at least 10 pages long/a total of at least 10 academic references (reference journal articles or books).

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The battle of Tours (732 AD) is still considered one of the seminal events in world history almost 1300 years after its conclusion. The common historiographical opinion among Western scholars was that Charles Martel’s brave defense against a numerically superior Muslim foe saved Western Christendom from destruction and prevented an Islamic Europe. However, Muslim sources argue that the Battle of Tours was less significant than the failed Siege of Constantinople (718 AD). Gustav Edmund von Grunebaum (2005) states that “the setback may have been important from the European point of view, but for the Muslims at that time, who saw no master plan imperiled thereby, it had no further significance.” Geographically speaking, von Grunebaum is correct....

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