*You must link a specific argument towards your thesis statement.
* Intellectual justification of land rights, sovereignty of Australian indigenous protest.
*The lost generations’ experience, you to create a question to make an argument.
* You must launch a thesis statement that links to specific sources for your arguments.
*Your arguments should be historical evidence.
*Do not forget your citations and other references.
Research Paper Tips
A successful paper will:
• Feature a clear, analytical and original thesis based on your original research
• Emerge out of at least five (5) rigorous historically-relevant sources.
• Demonstrate an analytical perspective that is thoughtful and informed.
• Demonstrate appropriate grammar, editing, and writing skills.
• Feature appropriate citation according to the Chicago Manual of Style.
CHOOSING A TOPIC
Picking a topic is perhaps the most important step in writing a research paper. As this has been a thematic survey class, your choice of topics is quite broad. This is your chance to explore issues that may or may not have been discussed in the class. When choosing a topic you may want to look back over your journal entries and consider the concepts that interested you over the semester. On the other hand you may have an original idea, connected to the readings or discussion or themes of the course that you may want to explore in more depth.
The criteria for a successful topic are 1) your level of interest 2) your ability to find appropriate sources about this topic 3) your ability to explore a historically-relevant thesis based on this topic.
NARROWING YOUR TOPIC
After choosing your general area of interest, the next step is to develop a specific research question. You cannot write a paper "about bi/multi-racialism in America” for that is such a large and vague concept that the paper will be too shallow or you will be swamped with information. You have to narrow your focus. Are you interested in comparing the lives of experiences of multi-racial people in America throughout the 20th century? Are you interested in the history of the movement to have a bi/multi-racial category on the census? For this class, narrowing the topic is somewhat easier because of the focus on a historical perspective. You want to narrow your topic in a way that allows your thesis to reflect a historical approach and perspective.
Once you reach this stage try to formulate your research topic as a question.
No one should pick a topic without trying to figure out how one could discover pertinent information, nor should anyone settle on a topic before getting some background information about the general area. These two checks should make sure your paper is in the realm of the possible. The trick of good research is detective work and imaginative thinking on how one can find information. First try to figure out what kinds of things you should know about a topic to answer your research question. Are there statistics? Do you need personal letters? What background information should be included? Then if you do not know how to find that particular kind of information, ASK. A reference librarian or professor is much more likely to be able to steer you to the right sources if you can ask a specific question such as "Where can I find statistics on the number of mixed raced children who came to the United States after the Vietnam War?" than if you say "What can you find on war and racial attitudes?"
BUILDING YOUR BIBLIOGRAPHY
You must create the list of relevant sources that will allow you to answer your research question. What makes an excellent research paper is 1) the quality of the sources that a student secures and 2) the quality of the analysis of these sources and 3) the quality of the student’s argumentation.
PROPER CITATION METHODS
You must us the Chicago Manual of Style to cite this paper. This requires both footnotes and a bibliography and students are encouraged to cite their paper rigorously and thoroughly.
A. Preliminary Research:
Develop a problem and select primary sources in consultation with me.
If you do not already have a general background on your topic, get the most recent good general source on the topic and read it for general orientation. On the basis of that reading formulate as clearly focused question as you can. You should generally discuss with your professor at that point whether your question is a feasible one.
B. Building a Basic Bibliography:
If there is a specialized bibliography on your topic, you will certainly want to consult that as well, but these are often a bit dated.
C. Building a Full Bibliography:
Read the recent articles or chapters that seem to focus on your topic best. This will allow you to focus your research question quite a bit. Use the sources cited and/or discussed in this reading to build a full bibliography. Use such tools as Historical Abstracts (or, depending on your topic, the abstracts from a different field) and a large, convenient computer-based national library catalog (e.g. the University of California system from the "Libs" command in your VAX account or the smaller University of Minnesota library through MUSE) to check out your sources fully. For specific article searches "Uncover" (press returns for the "open access") or possibly (less likely for history) "First Search" through "Connect to Other Resources" in MUSE can also be useful.
D. Major Research:
Now do the bulk of your research. But do not overdo it. Do not fall into the trap of reading and reading to avoid getting started on the writing. After you have the bulk of information you might need, start writing. You can fill in the smaller gaps of your research more effectively later.
DAILY/WEEKLY RESEARCH ACTIVITY
Research: Take notes from your primary and secondary sources. Moving through the items in your working bibliography, read and take notes on the information and insights from your sources. Here is where the fun begins. Read critically and with an open mind, and allow this research process to lead you to more useful sources. *You must read the citations and bibliographies of your secondary sources to find new and relevant sources*
Analyze notes: Every night after you have taken notes, look over all the note cards you have compiled so far. Do this even if you have just started taking notes. Look over your notes, noting interesting recurring patterns in your data, or interesting questions that pop up. The point is that you must analyze your notes as you do your research. Constant analysis will suggest themes to look for when researching, and will help you develop your argument. Do not wait to analyze your notes until you have finished taking them; it doesn't allow you to respond effectively to the information that you have gathered.
Write a preliminary thesis statement, expressing what you believe your major argument(s) will be. Sketch out a broad outline that indicates the structure - main points and subpoints or your argument as it seems at this time. Do not get too detailed at this point.
B. The First Draft:
On the basis of this thesis statement and outline, start writing, even pieces, as soon as you have enough information to start. Do not wait until you have filled all the research gaps. Keep on writing. If you run into smaller research questions just mark the text with a searchable symbol. It is important that you try to get to the end point of this writing as soon as possible, even if you leave pieces still in outline form at first and then fill the gaps after you get to the end.
Critical advice for larger papers:
It is often more effective not to start at the point where the beginning of your paper will be. Especially the introductory paragraph is often best left until later, when you feel ready and inspired.
C. The Second Draft:
The "second draft" is a fully re-thought and rewritten version of your paper. It is at the heart of the writing process.
First, lay your first draft aside for a day or so to gain distance from it. After that break, read it over with a critical eye as you would somebody else's paper (well, almost!). You will probably find that your first draft is still quite descriptive, rather than argumentative. It is likely to wander; your perspective and usually even the thesis seemed to change/develop as you wrote. Don't despair. That is perfectly normal even for experienced writers (even after 40 years and a good deal of published work!). You will be frustrated. But keep questioning your paper along the following lines: What precisely are my key questions? What parts of my evidence here are really pertinent to those questions (that is, does it help me answer them)? How or in what order can I structure my paper most effectively to answer those questions most clearly and efficiently for my reader?
At this point you must outline your paper freshly. Mark up your first draft, ask tough questions whether your argument is clear and whether the order in which you present your points is effective! You must write conceptually a new paper at this point, even if you can use paragraphs and especially quotes, factual data in the new draft.
It is critical that in your new draft your paragraphs start with topic sentences that identify the argument you will be making in the particular paragraph (sometimes this can be strings of two or three paragraphs). The individual steps in your argument must be clearly reflected in the topic sentences of your paragraphs (or a couple of them linked).
D. The Third or Final Draft:
You are now ready to check for basic rules of good writing. This is when you need to check the diction, that is, the accuracy and suitability of words. Eliminate unnecessary passive or awkward noun constructions (active-voice, verbal constructions are usually more effective); improve the flow of your transitions; avoid repetitions or split infinitives; correct apostrophes in possessives and such. Make the style clear and smooth. Check that the start of your paper is interesting for the reader. Last but not least, cut out unnecessary verbiage and wordiness. Spell-check and proof-read.
This material may consist of step-by-step explanations on how to solve a problem or examples of proper writing, including the use of citations, references, bibliographies, and formatting. This material is made available for the sole purpose of studying and learning - misuse is strictly forbidden.Introduction
The paper argues that because Aboriginal Australians underwent a long and arduous process of „westernization," to which they fiercely opposed, they are still ostracized from the society, and find it difficult to adapt. Even though Australia has long since become a multiethnic society, which accepts immigrants from all four corners of the world, Aboriginal are still treated as outsiders. This stems from the long history of conflict with white colonizers, and the subsequent reversal of roles, where whites became indigenous, and Aboriginal Australians became a sidenote in history. The origins of this difficult and burdening situation for Aboriginal Australians must be sought at the beginning of the colonization. Much like in other colonial havens, mainly the Americas, Aboriginal Australians were looked at as inferior from the moment the first settler came to Australia.
Citizenship, hardship and inequality of Aboriginal Australians
In 1788, the first fleet of ships sailed from England and landed on the shores of Australia. These early settlers ran into Aboriginal Australians early on, and initial descriptions of their lifestyle indicated they were nomadic, primitive natives....
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