Question 1
What does the idea of “calidad” tell us about the ways that gender, class and race were intertwined in Colonial Latin America?
Question 2
Violence sometimes takes particular gendered forms when directed at women. Explain using at least two examples: one from the readings and one from the Latino USA broadcasts on violence against women.
Question 3
In “Migration and Class as Constraints, “ Alcalde describes women’s efforts to escape violence at the hands of their partners. How can moving to the capital city help or harm these efforts?
Question 4
What has been the practical result of the legal prohibition of abortion in some countries of Latin America on women’s health?
Question 5
How is reproductive health linked to overall definitions of health and campaigns to improve health in Latin America?
Question 6
Link the “feminization of migration” as an economic, social and political process to globalization. Explain.
Question 7
What are reasons that Schwindt-Bayer finds women in public office have a greater likelihood of advocating for domestic issues related to children and family than men?
Question 8
Some have described this as the century of the woman, arguing that infant and maternal mortality, poverty and other issues can be solved by greater gender equality. Describe reasons why maternal mortality rates can be reduced with greater gender equality.
Question 9
What is a structural explanation for femicide in Ciudad Juárez? Be sure to name the author who argues for this explanation.
Question 10
Alma Guillermoprieto and Jennifer Livingston discuss different possible explanations for the killing of women in Ciudad Juárez. Describe the main differences between their perspectives.
Question 11
What is the relationship between the honor/virtue system in the colonial period and the idea of “enclosure”?
Question 12
What are gendered aspects of the idea of “purity of blood” (“limpieza de sangre”)?
Question 13
Which Latin American countries have a high level of female participation in the legislature? How can this be explained?
Question 14
How have women’s lives in Latin America changed since the colonial period? How have they remained the same? Give specific examples from the reading.
Question 15
Answer with a short essay of at least 3 paragraphs. We have seen how urbanization and migration change women’s lives profoundly. Take each of the following examples and describe how changes in residential, economic, political and social contexts altered women’s lives. Be specific.
• Women who moved to Alto do Cruzeiro in the 1960s
• Women who moved from the highlands to Lima, Peru in the 1980s and 1990s
Women who moved from other parts of Mexico to the border zone, in the 1980s and 1990s

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Question 1:
Calidad was any specific category that Latin Americans fit into in the social structure created by the Spanish colonial overlords. It was based on racial and ethnic stereotypes; whiter was perceived to be better. Most Latin Americans fell into the category of mestizo (mixed) or Negro (black/African), and were lower on the social scale...

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