This Assignment include 2 Essay Questions that required to be answered in 3 paragraphs each. The questions are:
1.Explain the cultural, political, and ideological consequences of European colonization of the Middle East that started after WWI of the Middle East?

2.How did Iran and Turkey assert new forms of hegemony through modernization over their subjects over the course of the 20th century? What were the intended and unintended consequences of these measures? What were the modes through which society resist and react the state? How do you think these were similar to/ different from other nation states of Middle East?

I Attached the instructions of these questions in a word document along with my class notes. Hope to get helped with these two questions as soon as possibles.

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1. Explain the cultural, political, and ideological consequences of European colonization of the Middle East that started after World War I
World War I completely changed the nature of the Middle East because European power directly entered the region by controlling most of the territory in the region. Prior to World War I, there were restive, proto-nationalist movements in what is now Iraq, Syria, Jordan and Israel/Palestine. During World War I, instead of agreeing to an Arab homeland that encompassed most of the Middle East, British diplomat Sir Mark Sykes and French diplomat Francois Georges-Picot consummated the Sykes-Picot agreement, which created spheres of influence for the French and British. The Sykes-Picot line largely set the borders of colonially controlled French Syria and Lebanon and British Jordan, Palestine, and Iraq, despite previous promises by another British diplomat, T.E. Lawrence, that the Arabs would have a unified homeland stretching from the Arabian Peninsula into Mesopotamia and Syria.
World War I also caused the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, which ruled most of these territories but was losing its grip due to internal weakness. Once World War I ended, the Ottoman Empire was dissolved; the British and French executed their plan under the Sykes-Picot agreement and...

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