It has also been considered an age of absolutism- when empires were led by rulers that claimed complete sovereignty within their territories.
These empires were the Ottoman, Safavid, and Mughal Empires and collectively termed the Gunpowder Empires of the late Islamic Period.
Compare and contrast the main features of these three empires with one another in light of the characteristics of Muslim Ascendancy mentioned above.
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The early Ottoman state was a small principality in north-west Anatolia, one of many states which grew out of the wreckage of the former Seljuk state of Rum. Historians differ about the relative importance of its two main characteristics, which were the tribal traditions of the Turko-Mongol warriors who dominated the state, and the influence of Islam. Paul Wittek, who emphasized Islam, claimed that the rise of the Ottoman state was due to its attraction to the fighters of the holy war (jihad), who joined the Ottomans because they were positioned to play the leading role in the struggle against the Christian Byzantine Empire to the west. To contemporary Europeans it seemed that the Ottoman state was unique in that it lacked an aristocracy and was run by men chosen by merit and wholly loyal to the sultan.. The population of the Ottoman empire was mixed linguistically, culturally, and by religion. The majority of the population of the European provinces were Christians of the Orthodox Church many of whom accepted the Ottoman rule because it was less burdensome than Roman Catholic domination....
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