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1. In what two areas did the first two forerunners of Western civilization appear? What factors contributed to the development of civilization in each? What did these two early civilizations have in common? In what ways did they differ?
The first two forerunners of Western civilization are Mesopotamia and Egypt. Mesopotamia is geographically located in the valley between the rivers Tigris and Euphrates (modern Iraq), while the Egyptian civilization appeared along the Nile riverbank in what is the modern state of Egypt. Both civilizations emerged in fertile river valleys. They were mainly agricultural and dependent upon the rivers as a source of water. In both civilizations they achieved a high degree of political and cultural development. Early forms of statehood emerged, with such characteristics of a civilization as writing, complex architecture, elaborate religious cult, science, and class differentiation in the society. Egypt emerged later than Mesopotamia, but developed more rapidly and achieved political unification sooner....
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