Answer the following questions in 300 words or less and provide references for your answers.
Question 1
14 August, 1947, saw the birth of the new Islamic Republic of Pakistan. At midnight the next day India won its freedom from colonial rule, ending nearly 350 years of British presence in India. During the struggle for freedom, Gandhi had written an appeal "To Every Briton" to free their possessions in Asia and Africa, especially India. The British left India divided in two. The two countries were founded on the basis of religion, with Pakistan as an Islamic state and India as a secular one.Whether the partition of these countries was wise and whether it was done too soon is still under debate. What do you think? What was the role of Gandhi in this partition.
Question 2
What accounts for the rather late emergence of African countries as independent nation-states? Is there something peculiar about Africa that delayed its drive for independence? (Begin with a specific African country and argue your case.) Must be cited in APA format.

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Question 1:
Britain’s partition of India in 1947 caused one of the most disastrous humanitarian crises in history. The British did not inform the prospective leaders of India and Pakistan, Jawaharlal Nehru and Muhammad Ali Jinnah respectively, exactly where the border between the two countries would be until the final moments before both countries officially became independent. As a result, Sir Cyril Radcliffe, assigned by Lord Mountbatten to draw the line, believed that he was throwing millions of Indians into refugee status because Hindus trapped in Pakistan would flee towards India and many Muslims in the Punjab would flee the Sikhs and Hindus to travel westward into Pakistan...

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