Application of Forensic in Skeletal Remains Investigations (3360 words)

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Listed below are the details outlining a crime scene that occurred over a period of time. You are to investigate and evaluate the crime and be prepared to present your information in a court in the form of a written document. You will have to use entomology, odontology, anthropology, pathology, and microbiology techniques to complete your investigation.

Carl and Joseph were in the woods of Georgia in early fall. They had set up a camp because they were both deer hunters. In the fall of years when the weather is cooler, deer are very prevalent. On this cool November morning, the men were walking through the woods in their quest for deer. On the second day of being in the woods, walking through what was really thick brush and uneven terrain, one of the men slipped and fell into what appeared to be a covering of a hole in the ground. As he began to try and pull himself out, he saw several skulls and bones lying around. He immediately screamed for his friend, who assisted him in getting out of the hole. Together, they looked in and saw skeletons and what appeared to be a decomposing body.

The two men called the local police. The police arrived, secured the area, and called for the forensic team to come and investigate. You are the forensic person that has been asked to identify the 5 skeletons in the grave and the body that was only partially decomposed.

Assignment Guidelines

Address the following:
Why will this particular case require the use of forensic biology? Explain in detail.
When you arrive on the scene, what is your first course of action? Describe your process, and be specific.
How will you avoid contamination at this stage of the investigation? Explain.
How will you control the other first responders or law enforcement officers? What challenges do they pose to a forensic investigator? Explain.
What will you do to identify the remains at this crime scene? Explain.
What is the documentation process for collecting and preserving this type of evidence? Explain.
How will you transport your evidence to the lab safely? Explain.
Once you arrive back at the lab, what significant risks of contamination exist? Explain.
How will you avoid this contamination? Explain.
What is the process for DNA analysis on the decomposing body?
What specific tests will you use? Explain.
How will serology play a role in the selected testing processes? Explain.
Using this decomposing body as an example, what is the process that you will follow to properly conduct this DNA test?
What challenges or barriers exist when you begin to interpret the results of your DNA test? Explain in detail.
How large of a role will facial reconstruction play in this investigation? Explain.
Next, provide 2 scenarios of court case outcomes regarding this investigation.
One scenario must result in the successful identification and conviction of the perpetrator. You will need to fill in the blanks with regard to physical evidence and other necessary details.
The other scenario must result in a wrongful conviction. You will need to identify the elements that lead to this wrongful conviction.

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Application of Forensic in Skeletal remains Investigations
Investigators use forensic science to analyze crimes and crime scenes. Forensic science is an empirical approach to examining and analyzing physical evidence of a crime for presentation in a court of law to solve a recent mystery. The word forensic comes from a Latin phrase denoting of or before the forum. As such, investigators present all evidence and extrapolations from forensic techniques to a forum of scientists who examine the admissibility for an objective activity. The application of forensic science begun in the late 16th century when a French surgeon, working for the army, started gathering and analyzing the effects of the cause of death to the human internal organs. He concluded that it is scientifically possible to offer a tentative guess on the cause of mortality as the victim cannot present the evidence. Currently, the field has evolved to incorporate accurate methodologies such as facial reconstruction, archeology, astronomy and other independent disciplines. As a result, the contemporary forensics studies are more complex and integrated where every applicable discipline plays a role in ensuring an objective presentation of forensic facts. The purpose of this article is to examine several forensic fields and their applicability in criminal investigations. The evaluated fields include entomology, odontology, anthropology, pathology, and microbiology. In a case concept, the author seeks to explain the relevance of the different forensic techniques as well as their specific procedures and efficiency.

Keywords: Evidence, Remains, Forensic, Tests, Investigations, Analysis,

1. Introduction
In a winter fall, two deer hunters, Joseph, and Carl, discovered five skeletons and a decomposing body in a forest in Georgia. The hunters were the first individuals at the crime scene or secondary crime scene and alerted the police immediately. The hunters found the body in an artificial thick bush with a covered hole used as dumping site of the bodies. Besides, the remains indicated different ages, thus showing a multiple visit to the site by the criminal/s. On arrival, the local police secured the area to avoid external contamination of the evidence and called in the forensic team for further investigation. Although the case remains under the jurisdiction of the local police, who will head the investigation, forensic techniques are obligatory to provide identification data to guide the studies.
2. The necessity of Forensic techniques
As outlined in the crime scene analysis, the police only recovered skeletons and a decomposing body. Unlike a fresh crime scene, officers lack the lead to guide their investigations largely because of the time ambiguity. In a crime with a defined timeline, an investigator can draw leads from other related activities that happened before, during or after the crime. However, in a crime scene as explained in the case study, it is highly non-feasible for an officer to launch an investigation. Therefore, Komar and Buikstra (2008) argue that it is vital to apply the forensic techniques, which when actually utilized might help in solving the felony.
To begin with, the application of forensic archeology would assist the investigators recover...
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