1. Discuss why it has been so difficult to develop a single definit...

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1. Discuss why it has been so difficult to develop a single definition of terrorism. Describe some of the approaches people and organizations have used to define terrorism (simple, legal, analytical, state sponsored and state). APA format. Must include at least three references.

2. In at least two pages not including the reference page address the following topic:
What are some of the challenges researchers face in conducting research into criminal justice? You may choose issues such as ethics, methodology, theory, and others. APA format. Must include at least three references.

3. In at least two pages not including the reference page address the following topic:
Briefly describe the basic philosophical and theoretical framework for understanding ethics and morality within the field of criminal justice. How did we come to these principles? Are they based on a historical set of principles or did we develop them on our own? APA format. Must include three references.

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These solutions may offer step-by-step problem-solving explanations or good writing examples that include modern styles of formatting and construction of bibliographies out of text citations and references. Students may use these solutions for personal skill-building and practice. Unethical use is strictly forbidden.

One of the most contested debates in the social and political arena regards the concise definition of terrorism. Good governance, politics, law and order, and social structure rely heavily on conventional agreements and approaches towards touchy global issues like terrorism. Over the years, various violent attacks such as the 911 attacks in the United States, the bomb attacks in the Boston Marathon and even gun violence attacks have been deemed as terrorist attacks. In some cases, what constitutes terrorism depends on who you ask since there is no agreed upon universal definition of the term. Different international bodies, governments, social groups and other entities all have conflicting definitions meant to suit their purpose, biases, and roles. Even in academia, the definition of the term remains elusive. In his book, Inside Terrorism, Georgetown University professor of Foreign Relations and Security Studies Bruce Hoffmann (2017), defines terrorism as the violence, or the threat of violence directed and used in service of, or in pursuit of political aims (Hoffman, 2017). Oxford University’s Louise Richardson defines terrorism as violent acts deliberately targeting civilians for political aim (Richardson, 2006). By applying these definitions from renowned scholars in terrorism studies, it is implied that if there is no political agenda, then acts that would otherwise constitute terrorism would just be normal crimes. Again, if there is no violence, then the acts are not deemed as terrorism.
The extremist attacks in Europe and the US highlight the increased difficulty in defining what constitutes terrorist acts and thus raising two key questions. First, do these forms of extremist acts constitute terrorism? Second, should the people and groups who incite these violence acts be treated as terrorists even if they have no direct participation in the violence. A key observation is that more and more violent attacks are being orchestrated by individuals who are inspired by - but are not members of, extremist groups. This makes it more difficult to define extremist hate groups as terrorist compared to cases where groups such as Al-Qaeda and ISIS have directly coordinated and orchestrated acts of violence. For example, ISIS was involved in the violent targeting of Christians, Yazidis and Shia Muslims in Syria and Iraq through its direct command of militants in these regions (Glenn, 2015). However, some individual acts of violence such as the Finsbury Park mosque attack of 2017 in London do not fit the direct command scenario. In this particular...

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