1. Discuss the development of antisocial behavior from birth to ad...

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1. Discuss the development of antisocial behavior from birth to adulthood.   

2. From the material presented in this class, discuss what some of the key features of an effective crime-control policy would include. Then, identify and critique current criminal justice and social policies aimed at reducing crime. Do they conform to what we know about the unfolding of crime and deviance across the life-course? Why or why not?

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Criminology questions
Question 1: Discuss the development of antisocial behavior from birth to adulthood
Wright, Tibbett, and Daigle (2015) relate that antisocial behaviors might start at birth, following the exposure of the fetus to traumatic events. While the list is not exhaustive, these events might include premature birth, anoxia, deprivation of oxygen, prolapse of the umbilical cord, and breech birth. These traumatic events cause damage to the brain of the fetus, which might then promote the development of neuropsychological deficits. According to Wright, Tibbett, and Daigle (2015), the deficit makes it challenging for an individualized to socialize. For instance, anoxia, which refers to the inability of the fetus to access sufficient oxygen, might lead to dwindling self-control. Wright, Tibbett, and Daigle (2015) associate low self-control with delinquency, crime, and a series of other analogous behavioral tendencies. Wright, Tibbett, and Daigle (2015) also confer that research has linked birth complications to Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, commonly abbreviated as ADHD, personality disorder, and problems in infant behavior, including fussiness, difficulty soothing, and crying. Furthermore, when psychosocial risk factors, which include maternal rejection family discord, and disadvantaged family setting, are in place, birth complications will increase the chances that a person will offend at some point in their life. Wright, Tibbett, and Daigle (2015) also suppose that coupled with trauma during birth, babies born with MPAs, minor physical abnormalities in full, also face increased threat of impulsivity, not mentioning the possibility of engaging in crime and delinquency. Also, antisocial problems are associated with the birthing process. For instance, Wright, Tibbett, and Daigle (2015) confer that low birth weight often results in relatively low IQ, which then leads to behavioral problems in children.
After birth and just before they achieve directed mobility, young children show disorganized or non-goal driven behaviors. Hence, young children will exhibit a range of behaviors, some of which might be troubling. They will bump into objects, crawl, scream, and put their fingers into light sockets. Such behaviors are not only normal but also age-appropriate (Wright, Tibbett, & Daigle, 2015). These children have not yet learned the way to generalize their behaviors across different settings. At the same time, they do not have the understanding that the rules governing social interactions vary from one place to another and across time. Despite the case, Wright, Tibbett, and Daigle (2015) claim that generalization is a fundamental developmental goal in childhood. This is primarily because it shows that a child is both self-regulating and learning recognition of social cues that set appropriate and inappropriate behaviors apart. Wright, Tibbett, and Daigle (2015) claim that the notion that the behaviors exhibited in early childhood are age-suitable does not imply that one cannot decipher that a certain child is developing or engaging in antisocial behaviors. Instead, a person should look into how certain behaviors persist over time and context and whether they interfere with the healthy development of the...

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