1. Discuss the nature of and at least three major theoretical persp...

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1. Discuss the nature of and at least three major theoretical perspectives on organized crime. What makes it difficult to research organized crime? How do these research difficulties translate into practical issues in addressing the problem of organized crime? Provide examples where appropriate.

Kleemans, E. R. (2013). Organized crime and the visible hand: A theoretical critique on the economic analysis of organized crime. Criminology & Criminal Justice, 13(5), 615–629.

Kleemans. E.R. Chapter 2: Theoretical Perspectives on Organized Crime. In Oxford Handbook of Organized Crime by Pauli, L. (Ed).

Hobbs, D. and G. Antonopoulous. Ch. 4 How to Research Organized Crime. In Oxford Handbook of Organized Crime by Pauli, L. (Ed).

2. We often hear about counter-terrorism measures in the media; we also read about them in the scholarly literature. Pick three types of existing counter-terrorism programs/interventions and discuss them in the context of existing evaluation research. In your opinion, are there alternative approaches to combatting terrorism that might be efficient (these could be novel approaches or synthetic approaches)?

Disengagement from Ideologically-Based and Violent Organizations: A Systematic Review of the Literature By: Steven Windisch1, Pete Simi2, Gina Sott Ligon3, Hillary McNeel4

Lum, C., Kennedy, L., and Sherley, A. (2006). Are counter-terrorism strategies effective? The results of the Campbell systematic review on counter-terrorism evaluation research. Journal of Experimental Criminology 2:489-516.

Adrian Cherney (2018) Evaluating interventions to disengage extremist offenders: a study of the proactive integrated support model (PRISM), Behavioral Sciences of Terrorism and Political Aggression

Mythen, G., Walklate, S., & Khan, F. (2013). ‘Why Should We Have to Prove We’re Alright?’: Counter-terrorism, Risk and Partial Securities. Sociology, 47(2), 383–398.

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Criminology Questions

Question 1. Discuss the nature of and at least three major theoretical perspectives on organized crime. What makes it difficult to research organized crime? How do these research difficulties translate into practical issues in addressing the problem of organized crime? Provide examples where appropriate.

Organized crime is one of the most sophisticated forms of crime. Criminologists often find it challenging to research about organized crime because of the different factors that enable such a crime. One of the main theoretical perspectives about organized crime is social embedded or integration of criminal relations. According to Hobbs & Antonopoulous (2014), market mechanisms, the visible social associations including violence and manipulation do not determine organized crime. Therefore, organized crime is about the day-to-day social relations that are evident rather than hidden or unseen. Such social relations include work relations.

Organized crime is thus based on criminal cooperation, especially when things are tough. This perspective seeks to move away from the theory of economics such as supply and demand. Moreover, it also focuses on moving away from personal choices that enable crime. Organized crime thrives through social relations that often produce opportunities for having crime as a career. According to Kleemans (2013), the individual in crime finds it important to cooperate rather than focusing on crime as a onetime thing. They also find increased benefits in using manipulation and violence to achieve their goals. Most organized crime or gangs often use...

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