Criminological Theory Instructions: Read all instructions and th...

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Criminological Theory

Instructions: Read all instructions and the essay questions thoroughly before proceeding with the exam. I strongly recommend outlining all the questions and your intended responses. Answer the questions in the order of what I designated constitutes a good response for them. Do not include introductions to the responses. You are not writing a paper.

Please answer ALL four questions below in a double-spaced Word document. The length of your responses for each question should be between 400-600 words. Include the word count at the end of each of your responses (e.g., Word count = 500) and then begin the reference list for each response on a new page per APA requirements. Use 12-point font in Times New Roman only.

Cite all sources in the text and in reference lists for EACH response, and do so in APA format.   Do not have a single reference list at the end of the document. You are to avoid quoting any definitions or other explanations of concepts, as that does not demonstrate that you comprehend the material. However, in other areas of a response, if you feel that a passage cannot be said any better than the original author said it, which is rare, you are allowed no more than one short quote (~ four lines) per page of a response. Use the Discover search tool on the library homepage to help you get appropriate sources and check with me if you still have questions about a source. You may use your assigned textbook. However, for each response, you must also have at least one scholarly/peer-reviewed research article related to the question. Any additional sources you use must also be scholarly/research articles. You should use research articles that address the theories in question as they are going to be applicable to your responses.

As always, mechanics (grammar, punctuation, and spelling) and style will be considered in the scoring. If your answer is too difficult to understand, then do not expect to earn a good score on a response. If citation formatting is incorrect, remember that you risk plagiarism, and the severity of that plagiarism will determine the penalty level you will face.

Save your exam as one file rather than separate files for each question, but start each response on a separate page. Please put your name at the top of the first page and number all pages according to APA format.


1. Theory and research are inextricably linked with criminal justice policy. Explain this relationship by discussing one theory that we have covered in weeks 1-3 and one policy recommendation that you can draw from it. A good response will identify the theory, discuss its principles, the criminal phenomenon [e.g., robbery, theft, drug trafficking, drug possession, gang-related violence] that you seek to address, and discuss at least one policy recommendation grounded in your chosen theory that you can apply to address the chosen criminal phenomenon. In discussing the policy, you need to identify the proposed policy and demonstrate how it links back to the principles of the chosen theory in two ways.
2. In your view, do any of the biological perspectives hold any merit for explaining criminal behavior? If so, which one holds the most promise and why? If not, why not? For those who say no, could anything change your views? Explain. A good response will first indicate your position on the question and then explain your position. If you believe that there is some promise, your explanation for why must indicate which perspective you believe holds the most promise, what types of offenses you think it holds the most promise for explaining, and three reasons for your position. If you believe that there is no promise, then you must indicate why you think there is no promise by discussing three reasons for your position, indicate whether anything could change your view, and offer two reasons for your position on this latter point.

3. Can you use any of the theories we covered in the first three weeks to explain terrorism? Defend your answer. If you believe the answer is yes, then a good response will indicate what perspective you think is most applicable, its principles, and how you believe those principles are applicable to the phenomenon of terrorism. In showing the link between the principles and terrorism, you must provide three links. If you believe the answer is no, then a good response will indicate why you think none of the theories are suitable and discuss three explanations for your position. Do not get into theories not covered in weeks 1-3.

4. Bernard, Snipes, and Gerould (2010) argue that while there are criminologists favorable to research linking personality and criminal offending, “methodological problems have led many to discard the research in this area as meaningless” (p. 82). Do you belive that studies attempting to examine the link between personality and crime lack merit/validity in light of glaring methodological problems or do you believe that studies attempting to examine this link have merit/validity despite glaring methodological problems? Explain your position. A good response will clearly indicate your position and discuss three reasons you hold that position.

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These solutions may offer step-by-step problem-solving explanations or good writing examples that include modern styles of formatting and construction of bibliographies out of text citations and references. Students may use these solutions for personal skill-building and practice. Unethical use is strictly forbidden.

Essay Questions
Q#1: Theory, research, and criminal justice policy
Indeed, theory and research are linked with the criminal justice policy inextricably. As such, criminal justice policy, enacted and proposed, is often grounded in theory. It is critical to refer to one specific theory, in this case, Lombroso's theory of the "born criminal," to understand this link. According to Lombroso, born criminals refers to atavistic reversions to...

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