Write a paper including the answers to the following questions: 1...

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QuestionQuestion

Write a paper including the answers to the following questions:
1. What is the single most frequently encountered problem across P/P populations? Why do you think this is happening?
2. How are operant conditioning, contingency management, and cognitive behavioral therapy used in drug treatment? Do you feel these are effective?
3. What are the problems associated with urine drug testing? Due to these, should this method still continue to used, why or why not?
4. What are the problems presented by developmentally challenged offenders? How would you address these?
400 words
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Please complete the following:
You have been charged with developing a female-specific program. Detail the program requirements and how they may differ from male-centered programs.
This assignment should be at least 1.5 pages in length, have at least 2 references and adhere to APA guidelines.
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1. Why it is better for public safety that a parole board be responsible for deciding release from prison? Do you agree or disagree, why?
2. How does place of residence influence recidivism?
3. Why do you think there is a lack of standards for “success” and “adequate supervision” in P/P?
400 words
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Thought Paper.
Based on what you have learned in this course answer the following questions for this paper.
1. Is society heading in the right direction in terms of probation and parole policies and practices? Why or why not?
2. How can future advances in technology make probation and parole more efficient?
3. What changes would you make in probation and parole policies and practices to make it a better system?
This paper should be at least 3 pages, have at least 3 references supporting your views, and adhere to APA Guidelines.

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1. What is the single most frequently encountered problem across P/P populations? Why do you think this is happening?
Substance abuse is a commonly encountered problem across probation and parole populations. According to Reid (2012), most of the inmates incarcerated in federal and state facilities have a history of using illegal drugs regularly. Substance abuse and the use of drugs are implicated in most of the crimes committed. Most of the offenders in prison have used drugs and alcohol before and after committing criminal offenses. After the offenders are released from prison under parole and probation, they are likely to have substance abuse-related problems. Rates of substance abuse are two to three times higher among individuals under supervision compared to the general population (Pew Charitable Trust, 2018). I think that majority of the parolees and probationers lack access and finances needed for treatment, and this makes substance abuse a major problem.
2. How are operant conditioning, contingency management, and cognitive behavioral therapy used in drug treatment? Do you feel these are effective?
Contingency Management (CM) entails the use of rewards and punishment of behavioral change among substance abusers and offenders. CM is an evidence-based therapeutic approach founded on the operant conditioning principles (Trotman & Taxaman, 2011). The operant conditioning principles are founded on the premise that rewarded and reinforced behaviors increase, whereas when behaviors are punished they decrease over time. CM is used systematically exacerbates desired behaviors and reduces undesired behaviors (Danovitch & Gorelick, 2019). Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) is used on drug addicts to modify addictive behaviors and to minimize the risk of relapse (Carroll & Kiluk, 2017). CBT, CM, and operant conditioning are effective approaches to the intervention of drug use disorders.
3. What are the problems associated with urine drug testing? Due to these, should this method still continue to used, why or why not?
Urine testing is used to establish whether an individual is using prohibited substances and drugs. Hadland and Levy (2016) established that urine testing is prone to misinterpretation of results, inaccurate and fraught findings, and tampering with a urine specimen...

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