-3 main points of the assigned reading accompanied by a short description (i.e., 3 separate paragraphs)
-3 major empirical research studies discussed in the assigned reading that support the main points with a short description (i.e., 3 separate paragraphs)
-2 key concepts or new terms discussed in the assigned reading with short definition. (i.e., 2 separate paragraphs)
-2 proposed actions to be taken that are discussed in the assigned readings with a short description (i.e., 2 separate paragraphs)
1. Jail Incarceration: A Common and Consequential Form of Criminal Justice Contact
2. The Paradox of Probation: Community Supervision in the Age of Mass Incarceration
Probation plays an integral function in the criminal justice system. According to Phelps (2013), probation supervision has been pushed in the United States (US) as part of incarceration. Probation entails the monitoring of individuals or offenders in their homes and communities. Phelps (2013) further contends that criminal justice reformers have advocated for probation practices because the approach is more effective and cheaper when compared to prison. Also, probation supervision is effective in minimizing prison populations across incarceration facilities in the US. Phelps (2013) concludes by noting that beyond the concept of the paradox of probation, evidence suggests that the use of probation practices is a crucial element of the US criminal justice system.
According to Phelps (2013), the rise of mass incarceration resulted in a loss of interest by scholars on understanding the use of probation. There is limited understanding of the leading causes of mass incarcerations, although the expansion of probation could be a significant cause. The findings suggest that probation did not lead to mass incarceration. However, probation is a practical approach that can be used to serve as an alternative for prison and to providing a net-widener in the criminal justice system. Phelps (2013) provided a new perspective on probation's goal in the US criminal justice system. The systematic review indicates that probation paradoxically provides the new-wider effect and the prison alternative.
The third point is that the enigma of the probation model is a useful approach and offers significant implications for advocacy groups, people, and policymakers interested in minimizing the current supervised population (Phelps, 2013). Phelps (2013) posits that probation reforms in the US could be successful when efforts are put...
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