Write a literature review on the urban heat island and its effect on city climate, in 2000 words; ensure your review is written for a technical audience.

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Similar yet sufficiently divergent methodological approaches to modeling the factors and relationships determinative of urban heat islands are considered, with an eye toward developing urban policy aimed at mitigating the extent of such urban contributions to warming and climatic change. Specifically, a recent analysis of the relationship between the form of urban development—urban and suburban sprawl, in particular—is examined; the analysis is notable for its reliance on a calculation of net thermal emission which takes into account the lower emission rate of forests lost to deforestation and development. The potential problems of such an approach are discussed, leading to suggested future research on the validity, accuracy, and robustness of using lost emission rates in net thermal emission calculations.
Much work has been done to study the contributions of urbanization to global warming, particularly given that more than half of the world’s population now live in cities. Development and urbanization of—until recently—largely undeveloped areas has only increased such contributions and their attendant concerns. One way of both quantifying and understanding the role of urban areas in climatological change is the urban heat island (UHI...

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