Literature Review on the Measurement of the Urban Heat Island Effect (2820 words)

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Write a 2500-3000 word literature review on the measurement of the urban heat island effect in hot, arid areas.

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Introduction
This paper examines extant literature on the urban heat island (UHI) effect for urban areas in hot, arid regions, with the goal of assembling and evaluating methods of measuring UHIs in those areas. Specifically, this discussion attempts to consider the simplest, most cost-effective methods of measuring UHI, particularly with an eye to having such methods operate over extended periods of time rather than over much shorter periods of time such as days or weeks. The rationale for this specific direction will be spelled out in further detail below, but, in short: Given trends toward rapidly increasing urbanization, and given that much of the growth in urbanization is expected to occur in hot, arid areas rather than, for example, forested temperate areas, focus on UHIs for cities in such areas is easily understood; however, given the predicted and likely growing contributions of climate change to UHIs, coupled with the fact that city and research budgets are likely to be stretched thin by growing urbanization, the development of simple, cost-effective, possibly indirect, UHI-measurement methods is likely to be imperative. Thus, the focus here is on measurement methods that are as pragmatic and as innovative as possible. An important caveat is worth noting, however: As will also be seen, given the possible unreliability of many research methods for measuring UHIs, great caution must be taken to ensure that methods used are rigorously valid.
Why Phoenix?
As a stand-in for arid areas in North Africa and the Middle East, for example, the city of Phoenix, Arizona is an excellent candidate; in fact, Phoenix’s annual average temperature is 1.2 °C higher than Cairo’s; Cairo is also more humid, with Phoenix’s humidity levels averaging around 24.5% lower...

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