We can also consider the quadratic residues of the additive group Zn (i.e. any element y ∈ Zn is a quadratic residue if and only if there exists an x ∈ Zn with 2x = y mod n.).
(a) What are the quadratic residues in Zp for p an odd prime?
(b) Let n = pq be a product of two odd primes p and q. What are the quadratic residues in Zn ?
(c) Let n be an even integer. What are the quadratic residues in Zn?
This material may consist of step-by-step explanations on how to solve a problem or examples of proper writing, including the use of citations, references, bibliographies, and formatting. This material is made available for the sole purpose of studying and learning - misuse is strictly forbidden.
By purchasing this solution you'll be able to access the following files: