Question

Answer the following questions:

A large medical center’s oncology program reported an increased number of cases of pancreatic cancer during a certain month. The hospital’s epidemiologist decided to research the problem. Tumor registry records were searched to identify all cases of pancreatic cancer during a five-year period; cancer patients were matched with patients treated for other diseases during the same five-year period. All subjects in the study were questioned about lifestyle factors including alcohol, tea, and coffee consumption. The resulting data are as follows:
                                     Cancer Patients     Other Patients
                                       Men    Women       Men   Women
LIFESTYLE VARIABLE
Alcohol                               185 120             270      260
Tea Drinking                       140 110             230       225
Coffee Drinking                 190 140             270       240

Note:   Total nuber of male cancer patients = 200.
            Total number of female cancer patients = 150.
            Total number of male patients (other diseases) = 300.
            Total number of female patients (other diseases) = 300.

Use this data to answer the next 5 questions.

1. What type of study is this?
A. Case-control
B. Cohort
C. Case-series
D. Descriptive


2. Does this study have an exposure status variable?
A. Yes, lifestyle
B. Yes, disease type
C. Yes, gender of patient
D. Yes, gender of patient and disease type


3. Which number best approximates risk associated with Alcohol Drinking among Men:
A.2.11
B.0.92
C.0.71
D.1.37


4. Which number best approximates risk associated with Coffee Drinking among Men?
A.2.11
B.0.94
C.1.02
D.3.50


5. Based on your calculations above, which factor has the strongest association with cancer for men?
A. the factors show no variation in the association
B. not enough information to determine
C. Coffee drinking
D. Alcohol consumption

Solution Preview

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1) A) Case-control studies are frequently used to identify factors that can contribute to a medical condition. So subjects with the disease and without the disease (control group) are compared. This type of study is pretty similar to cohort studies except case-control studies deal with “rare outcomes” (e.g. cancer in this exercise) and typically don’t require follow-up questions.

2) A) The exposure status variable would be the lifestyle variables given to us. In other words, one example would pertain to drinking or not drinking coffee....

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