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Q5. The investigators were also interested in examining whether obesity may modify the association between Mn exposure and motor function measurements. Table 4 is the results of obesity-stratified analysis that the investigators reported for soil Mn and Pursuit Aiming Test. Table 4. Association between soil Mn (log-transformed) and number of correct dots in Pursuit Aiming Test: stratified by obesity status Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis a Stratification beta s.e. p-value beta s.e. p-value Non-obesity -31.40 2.26 <.0001 -31.82 3.01 <.0001 Obesity -42.07 4.28 <.0001 -41.18 5.67 <.0001 a Multivariate analysis adjusted for age, gender, SES, and study site. Based on Table 4, do you think there is a suggestion of effect modification by obesity on the association between soil Mn and hand-eye coordination? Explain why or why not, and state your conclusion. There is a real effect modification by obesity because the models for both obesity and non-obesity are both significant (p<0.0001) both for univariate and multi variate analysis. In the models; for a 10 percent increase in the logs of soil Mn levels reduces the number of correct dots significantly by 3.1 and 4.1 for non-obesity and obesity participants respectively. The effect of soil Mn on hand eye coordination as evidenced from the number of corrects dots in the PAT is high in obesity than non-obesity study participants therefore the effect modification exists and is more pronounced.   Q6. Replicate the analysis in Table 4, but looking at Luria Test score as the outcome instead of Pursuit Aiming Test. Table 5. Association between soil Mn (log-transformed) and scores of motor coordination in Luria Test: stratified by obesity status Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis a Stratification beta s.e. p-value beta s.e. p-value Non-obesity -13.04 1.00 <.0001 -12.84 1.09 <.0001 Obesity -14.57 2.45 <.0001 -12.66 2.64 <.0001 a Multivariate analysis adjusted for age, gender, SES, and study site. The results indicate a significant association between Soil Mn (log-transformed) and motor coordination scores for both non-obesity and Obesity study participants (ρ<0.0001). The same applies for Univariate and multivariate analyses. Analyses (multivariate) further indicate that for a 10 percent increase in Soil Mn (log transformed) scores of motor coordination decrease in the same magnitude of 1.3 in both obesity and non-obese participants without varying other variables. Although for univariate analysis a 10 percent increases reduces motor coordination scores significantly in obesity participants than non-obesity participants, the magnitude is inconsiderable to scale. The results above informs a view that obesity status may not influence the effect of exposure of Soil Mn in motor coordination. Weight size may not have an influence in hand movements as used in the Luria test. Different tests may need be used to confirm the cofounding effect of obesity in the association of Soil Mn levels and motor coordination scores. Annex: Qn 6 Syntax GET FILE='C:\Users\Statistician\Desktop\Sarah\Data.sav'. DATASET NAME DataSet1 WINDOW=FRONT. COMPUTE LogSoilMn=LN(soil_mn). VARIABLE LABELS LogSoilMn 'Natural Logarithm of Soil Mn'. EXECUTE. REGRESSION /SELECT=obese EQ 0 /MISSING LISTWISE /STATISTICS COEFF OUTS R ANOVA /CRITERIA=PIN(.05) POUT(.10) /NOORIGIN /DEPENDENT luria_sum /METHOD=ENTER SES gender age Site /METHOD=ENTER LogSoilMn. REGRESSION /SELECT=obese EQ 1 /MISSING LISTWISE /STATISTICS COEFF OUTS R ANOVA /CRITERIA=PIN(.05) POUT(.10) /NOORIGIN /DEPENDENT luria_sum /METHOD=ENTER SES gender age Site /METHOD=ENTER LogSoilMn. REGRESSION /SELECT=obese EQ 1 /MISSING LISTWISE /STATISTICS COEFF OUTS R ANOVA /CRITERIA=PIN(.05) POUT(.10) /NOORIGIN /DEPENDENT luria_sum /METHOD=ENTER LogSoilMn. REGRESSION /SELECT=obese EQ 0 /MISSING LISTWISE /STATISTICS COEFF OUTS R ANOVA /CRITERIA=PIN(.05) POUT(.10) /NOORIGIN /DEPENDENT luria_sum /METHOD=ENTER LogSoilMn.

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There is a real effect modification by obesity because the models for both obesity and non-obesity are both significant (p<0.0001) both for univariate and multi variate analysis. In the models; for a 10 percent increase

The results indicate a significant association between Soil Mn (log-transformed) and motor coordination scores for both non-obesity and Obesity study participants (ρ<0.0001). The same applies for Univariate and multivariate analyses. Analyses (multivariate) further indicate that for a 10 percent increase in Soil Mn (log transformed) scores of motor coordination decrease...
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