## Question

Answer Questions 2–4 using the data below for students’ scores on a pretest/posttest that are enrolled in a college ENG 101 course. The pretest was taken at the beginning of the semester. The posttest was taken at the end of the semester.

(Pretest, Posttest, Difference, D2)

3 4 -1 1

2 7 -5 25

4 6 -2 4

2 4 -2 4

1 5 -4 16

5 8 -3 9

6 9 -3 9

3 8 -5 25

2 6 -4 16

3 7 -4 16

Sum = 31 Sum = 64 Sum = -33 Sum = 125

Mean = 3.1 Mean = 6.4 Mean = -3.3 Mean – 12.5

2. Calculate the degrees of freedom.

3. Calculate the t value.

4.a. Interpret the t-value using .05, then using .01 and explain what it means for students taking the ENG 101 course.

4. b. State the null and research hypothesis if this data represent scores on a writing test at the beginning of the semester versus scores at the end of the semester for ENG 101.

5. Using your own data, perform a dependent t-test using SPSS. State your research and null hypothesis, interpret your results, and then state whether to accept or reject the null based upon your results. Write up a brief results paragraph and copy your SPPS output into your document.

## Solution Preview

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1. How does a dependent samples t-test differ form an independent samples t-test?When we talk about the independent samples t-test then we are taking about the testing of two independent groups such as difference in the scores of boys and girls of a class, whereas when we talk about the dependent sample t-test it is a test which is used when we have to compare two dependent groups such as if we want to compare the scores of the group of students before the taking extra classes and scores of same students after taking the extra classes, here in both the groups same students will be there but at different time points....

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