One-way ANOVA
David and Lisa have been hired by Kaiser Permanente Southern California as nutrition consultants to examine several nutritional counseling programs offered by Kaiser to individuals living in low-income urban areas. They conduct a study to compare the effects of these programs on weekly intake of fruit and vegetables. They randomly select 45 individuals from low-income urban areas and randomly assign them to either a “Nutrition Counseling Only” program, a “Counseling and Shopping” program, or the “Fruity Fun Fantasy” program for a two-month period. At the end of the two months, they administer a 7-day food intake instrument to measure intake of fruits and vegetables consumed in the past week and obtain the following scores. Scores are given as number of servings of fruit and vegetables consumed in a week.
Nutrition Counseling Only/ Counseling & Shopping/ Fruity Fun Fantasy
8 15 9
9 12 15
10 12 11
8 14 15
10 12 12
9 11 15
10 12 12
11 14 14
9 10 11
12 9 12
11 10 12
10 9 12
11 14 13
9 9 13
10 13 13

Directions Please answer each of the problems (opportunities) below. Be sure to read each question thoroughly prior to answering. All answers must be typed in a word-processing program. Be sure to cut/copy and paste your SPSS output into your word document in the appropriate place and clearly refer to it in your answer. DO NOT SIMPLY ATTACH ALL OF YOUR SPSS OUTPUT TO THE END OF THE ASSIGNMENT !
1. Outline the steps David and Lisa should use in hypothesis testing (be specific to this study to receive credit).
2. Conduct the appropriate statistical analysis to address the research question.
3. Interpret the results of your analysis being sure to address the following issues in a separate section (label as a, b, c, d, e, f):
a) Assumptions of the statistical procedures (what are they, their meaning, how did you check, what were you looking for as evidence of meeting the assumption, what did you find?)
b) Statistical significance
c) Practical significance
d) Formal reporting of results (yes, you may be repeating some information here that you’ve provided above) WORD formatted table (do not cut and paste SPSS table) of Descriptive statistics must be included. You must include the rationale for the follow-up you chose to conduct, and must describe the nature of the differences found (i.e., what direction, how much, etc.)
e) Conclusions David and Lisa can make from their investigation and suggestions for future research

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The purpose of this report is to examine several nutritional counseling programs offered by Kaiser to individual living in low-income urban areas. The study is concerned on the effect of these programs on the weekly intake of fruit.

In this study 45 individuals were randomly selected and randomly assigned to one of one of three programs: Nutrition Counseling Only, Counseling and shopping, or the more imaginative Fruity Fun Fantasy program for a two month period. At the end of the program they measured the weekly intake of fruits and vegetables consumed in the week prior. The scores, the number of fruit and vegetable servings consumed in a week, were reported.
It was reported that the randomization was sufficiently blind that we may assume that there is no bias in the assignment to the various counseling programs.
Section 1: Outline the steps David and Lisa should use in hypothesis testing.
1. The primary research questions are:
a. Are there significant differences in outcome between the various counseling programs?
b. If so is there a particular counseling program that produces better results than the other two, can these be ranked in order of success.
2. Define the hypotheses: The null hypothesis for question 1 is that there is no difference in effectiveness between the three programs, and the alternative is that there is a difference.
3. Choose a statistical model: under the assumption that the populations are normal we perform an ANOVA, at a significance level of 5%. Calculate the test statistic
4. Determine the rejection regions for the various tests.
5. State our conclusions....
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