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Task 1 for the 2 test A researcher is investigating whether there are gender differences in students’ choice of writing instruments (i.e., use of pencils vs. pens). The researcher observes a sample of high school students and notes both the student gender and the instrument used for writing. These are the data: Gender Instrument Gender Instrument F PENCIL M PENCIL F PENCIL M PENCIL M PEN M PENCIL F PENCIL M PEN F PEN F PENCIL F PEN M PEN M PEN M PENCIL F PENCIL M PEN F PENCIL M PEN M PEN M PENCIL M PEN M PEN F PENCIL F PENCIL F PEN F PENCIL F PENCIL Your assignment: (5 points each question) 1. State the null hypothesis of interest in this study (symbol representation and statements). 2. What type of 2 do you use? Why? 3. Compute 2 , evaluate statistical significance using an alpha level of .05, estimate the effect size (w), and a measure of association (Cramer’s V). 4. Write a one-paragraph interpretation of the results of this study (including all the numbers of 2 , the critical 2 ,an alpha level, w, and Cramer’s V) 5. Using SAS to conduct analyses for this study. Attach your syntax and outputs ( Highlight your crucial results in your outputs) Task 2 for one-way ANOVA A researcher was studying teachers’ uses of technology in instruction. She drew four samples of high school teachers, one each from teachers of mathematics, English, science and history. She made certain that all teacher participants in the study were teaching in their field of certification and that all had between five and ten years of experience in that subject area. Each teacher completed the Teach with Tech scale (Nerdy & Frump, 1998) a self-report instrument that measures the use of technology in classroom instruction. The scale provides scores ranging from 10 to 30, with higher scores representing a greater use of technology. These are the resulting data: Subject Area Math English Science History 24 19 16 15 19 13 18 12 29 15 15 14 28 15 16 11 28 12 17 12 26 14 17 13 Your assignment: (5 points each question) 6. State the null hypothesis of interest in this study (symbol representation and statements). 7. Conduct an appropriate test of this null hypothesis using an alpha level of .05 and interpret the results of this test. 8. Construct an ANOVA summary table that could be used to communicate the results of this test. 9. Conduct the appropriate multiple comparison tests to identify statistically significant pairwise differences between subject area mean scores. 10. Write a one-paragraph interpretation of the results. 11. Construct a summary table of the linear model for this researcher’ data and indicate the following elements: 41 4321 6334532112 YY 64 ,,,,,,,,,,,  12. Using SAS to conduct analyses for this study. Submit your syntax and outputs (Highlight your crucial results in your outputs)

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