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Abstract - This is a concisely worded synopsis of the research detailing the background, aim, methodology, results and main conclusions from the body of work. It should be complete without reference to the rest of the report, is usually be written only when the rest of the report is complete, and should not contain afterthoughts or statements that are not evident in the rest of the report.

Introduction - This represent a significant body of reading and writing. The Introduction provides the background to the study, the current state of research in your chosen field and identify the research gaps that lead to your aims. Provide references to previous research of a general nature (these will be discussed more fully in the discussion where they are of direct relevance to the project)

Material and Methods - The methods section is where you define the methods employed to answer your research question. It should contain any of the following: area of fieldwork, details of apparatus and methods, description of materials, software etc. (see supervisor for precise advice). For Meta-Analysis projects you would ordinarily include details about the search criteria, databases, inclusion/exclusion criteria. It should provide sufficient information for the reader to follow, and if necessary, repeat any procedure, and list the equipment used, detail any modifications to established techniques and describe/ illustrate all specially constructed equipment and novel procedures. You should describe all experimental conditions, procedures and precautions necessary to ensure accuracy and safety, and (if necessary) refer to preliminary experiments and to consequent changes in techniques. Also you need to include statistical methods employed in your research.

Results - The results section is where you present your findings. It should relate to the intentions given in the introduction and provide a factual statement of what was observed, supported by any statistics, data and/or graphs derived from the analysis of the data recorded during the investigation. Choosing an appropriate graphical representation of your data is just as important as the words you write in the results section. Whether you use a pie chart or bar chart is very much dependent on what you aim to show. Remember the description of the results in the main text body of this section, it must not be just a series of figures. Remember titles for each figure and table, and explanatory legends.

Discussion and Conclusions - The discussion provides the opportunity to talk about your findings, the aims of the project and whether these were met and what they mean with reference to the wider scientific literature. It should include a discussion of the project results, how these relate to the present state of knowledge, conclusions to be drawn, and suggestions for further work. You should use this opportunity to mention new approaches, limitations and assumptions upon which the work is based, include clearly stated major outcomes of the project and cited references to published work.

References - An alphabetical list of references should be provided.

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Hypnosis as a method to alleviate Dental Anxiety, Fear and Phobia in Endodontic Treatment.


Endodontic treatment is a commonly used dental procedure that involves using various instrumentation that some patients may find frightening. Sounds, smells, and sights associated with visits to dental surgeries can also contribute to patients perceiving these interventions as threatening, uncomfortable, and confusing. Some of the most common reactions to endodontic procedures involve dental anxiety, fear, and phobia. These feelings may often encourage patients not to maintain proper oral hygiene and adhere to prescribed therapy plans and regular check-ups which can increase the risk of oral disease. There are several treatment options available for people with dental anxiety and fear including psychological approaches, pain management procedures, regular check-ups and early diagnosis, prophylactic use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medication therapy, and different operative techniques. The literature has reported that using hypnosis in treating dental phobia can be an effective way to reduce pain and anxiety. This analysis of the literature has reviewed peer-reviewed articles to determine the effect size of hypnosis interventions in patients diagnosed with general, dental, medical and performance anxiety. The results suggest that hypnosis can be used successfully both as a stand-alone procedure and when combined with other psychological interventions. However, there is a considerable gap in the literature about the effects of self-hypnosis on alleviating patients with anxiety.


Endodontic treatment is a procedure used in patients with irreversible inflammation of dental pulp tissue (pulpitis). Depending on the diagnosis, the treatment is to be completed in one or multiple sessions. Endodontic treatment requires the use of various instrumentation, including instruments to start the procedure and prepare the access cavity, needles, syringes, and drills, as well as more specific equipment to prepare, clean and obturate root canals (Blicher et al., 2016). As the extirpation of nervous tissue from root canals can be unpleasant, patients undergoing endodontic treatment are usually given a local anesthetic. However, there is still a number of people who feel pain during or after the procedure and may potentially finding the whole experience distressful. Additionally, sounds, smells, and sights associated with the visits to dental surgeries make that most of the dental procedures are generally perceived as a threatening, uncomfortable, and confusing experience (Burghardt, 2018).
In a recent study that examined patients’ understanding and awareness of sedation in endodontic procedures, the authors stated that 35% of the sample reported the fear of pain as the most common concern related to dental procedures. While 16% of patients were afraid of needles, 10% failed to be numbed following the application of the local anesthetic. The same study reported that 7% of participants experienced symptoms of anxiety associated with endodontic treatment (Huh, 2015). A distressful dental visit can, therefore, make people anxious and fearful of any future dental appointments and procedures.
Anxiety is a common reaction to a stressful situation that causes somatic reactions aimed at preparing the body to react to a worrying or potentially threatening situation caused by an event with an uncertain outcome. More accurately, anxiety is defined as an emotional reaction characterized by physical changes like the rise in blood pressure (activation of the sympathetic nervous system), and psychological responses such as having worrying thoughts and tension. Fear, on the other hand, is a physical and psychological response to an immediate threat or danger (Khan, 2016).
Anxiety and fear can affirm patients to postpone future visits to the dental office or encourage them not to adhere to prescribed therapy plans (Dou, 2018). Delays in seeking dental treatment can have detrimental effects on...
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