To prepare for this Application Assignment, identify an epidemiologic association of interest (e.g., smoking and lung cancer, obesity and heart disease, hormonal therapy and breast cancer).
To complete this Application Assignment, write a 2 to 3 page paper in which you describe how you would investigate the association in question using different observational study designs, including the following:
• Cross-sectional (may be descriptive or analytic)
• Case-control
• Cohort
Specify the study design and identify the advantages and disadvantages of that study design.
• The population(s) being studied
• The exposure(s)
• the outcome(s)
• the length of follow-up (in cohort studies)
• the type of control (in case control studies)
• the method(s) of ascertainment for exposures and outcomes
• other factors you feel may be relevant to the proposed studies.

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Association of interest: smoking and lung cancer
Association between smoking and lung cancer could be examined by using different study designs. In this paper, the potential use of 3 study designs (case-control, cohort, cross-sectional) for investigating the mentioned association will be explored.
In a case-control study, researchers would have to form two groups of participants: cases and controls. Hence, the study starts with identified outcome (diagnosed lung cancer) and participants are inquired about previous exposure (smoking). Cases group would comprise of patients with lung cancer, and controls of people without lung cancer. Ideally, controls would be healthy individuals, randomly sampled from the general population. However, that is often difficult to get and control group might be the group of patients in the same...

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