A study that compares the prevalence of high blood pressure among current Massachusetts Turnpike toll booth collectors with the current prevalence of high blood pressure of current Turnpike office workers. What type of study is this?
a. Case report
b. Case series
c. Cohort study
d. Cross-sectional study
A strength of BOTH cross-sectional and an ecological studies is:
a. good for early stage of knowledge
b. good for individual- level effects
c. temporal sequence is maintained
d. exposure and effect occur in the same person
The Health Professionals Cohort Study began in 2005 in order to evaluate a series of hypotheses about men’s health relating nutritional factors to the incidence of serious illnesses such as cancer, heart disease, and other vascular diseases. Every two years, members of the study will receive surveys with questions about diseases and health-related topics like smoking, physical activity, and medications taken. The surveys that ask detailed dietary information will be administered in four-year intervals. What kind of cohort study is this?
An analysis that includes all subjects who were randomized to the treatment and comparison groups, regardless of whether they received or completed their assigned study protocol.
a. Run-in period
b. Efficacy Analysis
d. Intent-to-treat analysis
What is the primary objective of any case-control or cohort study?
a. A well-designed experimental study.
b. Accurate randomization of the intervention.
c. Adjustment for the time sequence of events.
d. A valid result.
Which study design is most appropriate to study multiple outcomes from a single exposure?
A case-control study is most efficient design for studying the health effects of rare exposures.
The ecological fallacy states that associations seen on the group level will not necessarily be present on the individual level.
A major advantage of a randomized clinical trial is that it rules out self-selection of patients to the different treatment groups.
An experimental study was conducted among adults with Type 2 diabetes in order to determine if a new medication was more effective in reducing blood glucose levels than the currently used medication. What type of experimental study is this?
a. Individual preventive
b. Individual therapeutic
c. Community preventive
d. Community therapeutic
Which of the following techniques used in experimental studies can be directly applied in cohort studies (choose all that apply)?
d. Run-in period
A study was done to determine whether the amount of money spent on soft drinks was related to mortality from diabetes. The investigators collected data on per capita (average per person) soft drink consumption in ten US states and examined its relationship to mortality rates from diabetes in those ten states. In order to calculate per capita sales they gathered annual data on soft drink sales from commerce records and then divided these figures by the state’s population from the most recent census. The mortality data were gathered from the vital records department in each state. What type of study is this?
a. Ecological Study
b. Case-control study
c. Cross-sectional study
d. Cohort study
What sources can be used to identify controls for a case-control study?
a. General population
b. Hospital/clinic patients
c. Friends and relatives
d. All of the above
When is it desirable to use a case-control study (choose all that apply)?
a. When the disease is rare
b. When little is known about the disease
c. When the disease has a short latent period
What is the purpose of the control group in a case-control study?
a. To provide information on the disease distribution in the population that gave rise to the cases
b. To provide information on the exposure distribution in the population that gave rise to the cases
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