QuestionQuestion

QUESTION 1
Selection bias is most likely to occur in which type of study?
a. Prospective cohort studies
b. Retrospective cohort studies
c. Case-control studies
d. Both retrospective cohort and case-control studies

QUESTION 2
Interviewer/recording bias can occur in
a. Case-control studies only
b. Cohort studies only
c. Experimental studies only
d. Any type of epidemiologic study

QUESTION 3
If a subjects’ willingness to participate is related to both their exposure status and disease status, the resulting bias is known as
a. Control-selection bias
b. Interviewer/recording bias
c. Self-selection bias
d. Surveillance, diagnostic, or referral bias

QUESTION 4
Non-differential misclassification tends to bias study results in which direction?
a. Towards the null
b. Away from the null
c. Either towards or away from the null

QUESTION 5
Loss to follow-up bias is an important concern in which type of epidemiologic study?
a. Case-control studies only
b. Cohort studies only
c. Experimental studies only
d. Both cohort and experimental studies

QUESTION 6
Which of the following is a method for controlling confounding in the analysis phase only of a study?
a. Randomization
b. Stratification
c. Matching
d. Restriction

QUESTION 7
An analytic method that simultaneously adjusts for several variables (confounders) is called:
a. Multivariate modeling
b. Stratification
c. Matching
d. Restriction

QUESTION 8
For a variable to be a confounder, it must be:
a. Associated with the disease (outcome) under study
b. Associated with the risk factor (exposure) under study
c. Both of the above
d. Neither of the above

QUESTION 9
A study design method to control confounding involving the selection of study subjects so that potential confounders are distributed identically is called:
a. Multivariate modeling
b. Stratification
c. Matching
d. Restriction

QUESTION 10
Residual confounding can result from:
a. Use of broad categories of a confounder in the analysis
b. Confounders for which no data were collected
c. Inaccurate data on a confounder
d. All of the above

QUESTION 11
When chance, bias, and confounding have been ruled out as alternative explanations for an association, we may conclude that the association is causal.
True
False

QUESTION 12
When the magnitude of the association between an exposure and disease is changed or modified by a third variable, this is known as:
a. Bias
b. Confounding
c. Effect modification
d. Random error

QUESTION 13
Effect modification is an arbitrary statistical phenomenon that should be controlled for and minimized in an analysis.
True
False

QUESTION 14
In effect modification, it is possible to have a relative risk associated with both factors that is larger than the product of the relative risk associated with each factor alone.
True
False

QUESTION 15
Effect modification is evaluated in stratified analyses through:
a. Visual inspection
b. Statistical tests
c. Evaluation of excess relative risks
d. All of the above

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Question 1: The answer is option D.
Question 2: The answer is option D....
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