This material may consist of step-by-step explanations on how to solve a problem or examples of proper writing, including the use of citations, references, bibliographies, and formatting. This material is made available for the sole purpose of studying and learning - misuse is strictly forbidden.Cancer immunotherapy is a biological therapy based on the fact that tumor cells interact with the host immune system and that some components of the immune system (such as antibodies) can be used to fight the cancer by inhibiting or killing the tumor cells. The first indications of the use of immune system in the defense against tumors appeared back in the 19th century, when a surgeon William Coley noticed improvement in cancer patients after developing postoperative infections.
During the 20th century, several immunotherapeutics were approved as a treatment for different cancers, including Bacillus Calmette-Guerin for bladder tumors, interferon-α (IFN-α) and interleukin-2 for metastatic melanoma and renal cell carcinoma.
The application of the cancer immunotherapy has a very long research history which culminated in 2018 when The Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded to James Allison and Tasuku Honjo "for their discovery of cancer therapy by inhibition of negative immune regulation". Today, there are...