QuestionQuestion

BIOLOGY-Immunology
Article: Changes in monocyte functions of astronauts

What is the overall question that the scientists are trying to address in this paper?

Introduction
What type of stresses do astronauts routinely experience?
What is used as an indicator of the immune status of astronauts?
How does the approach of this study compare to previous studies?
What is CD14? On which cell types is it found and what is its role in the immune system? (you may need to look this up!)

Methods
What was being measured in each method?

Results:
For each figure determine the following:
What is the purpose of this figure?
What method was used? (in general- example: used gel electrophoresis to detect the sizes of DNA)
What does it show? (What is the overall result?)

Discussion:
What is the overall conclusion?
How does these results compare to previous findings?
What are the implications of this research (i.e. how can it be used in the future?)

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BIOLOGY-Immunology

What is the overall question that the scientists are trying to address in this paper?
Whether astronauts experienced changed to their monocyte immune cells, immediately after arriving back to Earth and in the days following.

Introduction
What type of stresses do astronauts routinely experience?
Astronauts experience both physical and psychological stresses, which include sleep deprivation, isolation, gravitational forces, isolation, anxiety and physical exertion.

What is used as an indicator of the immune status of astronauts?
The reactivation of latent herpes viruses.

How does the approach of this study compare to previous studies?
Prior studies evaluated changed to monocyte population and their expression of markers such as CD14. This current study instead analyses the changes to monocyte phagocytic and bactericidal functions, rather than their populations.

What is CD14? On which cell types is it found and what is its role in the immune system?...
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