Subject Medicine and Nursing Laboratory Science
Question
I. Questions based on weak D
a. Explain the various types of weak D that have been identified.
b. Explain the usefulness of genotyping in individuals who are D negative or weakly D positive.
c. Do all pregnant women who are D negative need to be treated to prevent a reaction? Why or why not.
Questions based on weak D


II. Find a recently published article that was published in Transfusion or another highly-ranked journal (i.e., Science) and summarize the article, including:
-the main point of the article
-the significance
-the methods used in the study
-the major findings
-the types of controls used
-how this study added to the overall understanding of the topic or the scientific literature
-future directions.
Solution
Q1a. Explain the various types of weak D that has been identified.
Ans:
Weak D antigen is a variant of canonical RhD antigen in which there is an amino-acid substitution in the intracellular or transmembrane segment of the protein, and a reduced amount of the antigen is expressed (less than 5000 antigens per RBC). The proteins are less in number because of the folding problems or a hindrance in palmitoylation during the integration of the protein in the RBC membrane.
Originally 16 types of weak D antigens had been reported, but the number of various types and their subtypes now exceed more than 80. (Flegel, 2011).
The weak D type 1, 2, 3 and 4.0/4.1 are the most prevalent in Caucasian/European population and represent more than 95% of the weak D types in the world....

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