Subject Medicine and Nursing Medical Science and Radiofrequency Technology


A) PICO Question ; Are the residents of Ironridge (P) who have been exposed to environmental pollution (I) at an increased risk of developing COPD (0) as compared to the resident's living in community 150 miles away from Ironridge (P) without the exposure to environmental pollutants (C)?

Using the above question -
what type of sample would you need to examine your question and learn more about your issue? What are the various types of sampling you could use, along with their advantages and disadvantages?

B) Read these two documents on ethical issues in research.

• Tuskegee syphilis study at
• An overview of questionable studies: Resnik, D. (2012). Research ethics timeline (1932-present). Retrieved from

What are the ethical principles violated in the studies described in these documents? What are the implications of this information with respect to the recruitment of human subjects in your Ironridge study?

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a. To ensure that the samples are as fairly selected as possible, I would need to select Ironridge adult residents aged 40 years or greater who have lived there for at least five years. I would also need to select a community that does not possess the same environmental hazards or any hazard that is known to increase cancer rates. The control sample living in the unaffected town must also be aged 40 years or greater and resided in that town for at least five years. Each sample would be as large as possible and around the same size (5,000 individuals for each town is a good size) (Royal Geographical Society, Sampling Techniques, (2014). Types of sampling include simple random, probability (fully random), stratified random, systematic and availability. Simple random fully removes bias but large numbers of individuals in each cohort are likely to be removed due to the fact they do not fully qualify for the study...

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