Be sure to use complete sentences in your responses to items 2 through 8.
1. What is the title and source of the article? Use APA format for the reference.
Blumenthal, R.S., & Margolis, S. (2009). Protecting your heart with whole grains. Heart Attack Prevention, 36-37. Retrieved from Health Source: Consumer database.
2. Name the disease or diseases mentioned in the article.
Heart disease, blood cholesterol, abdominal fat, and a marker of inflammation called C-reactiveprotein (CRP) are mentioned in the article. Although all of these diseases are mentioned heart disease and high cholesterol are the article’s main focuses. Most of the research studies used as evidence pertain to one of these two diseases. The abdominal fat and C-reactive protein are used mainly to show that fiber can have a good influence on health beyond the heart.
3. What types of fibers and foods are mentioned in the article?
Soluble and insoluble fibers are the two different types of fiber mentioned in the article. The article explains how the refining process actually removes the fiber from the grain. It states that although the manufacturers do add back some of the lost nutrients, most times the fiber is not replaced. The article then goes on to describe healthful fiber-rich foods. Whole grain oatmeal, whole-grain cereal, whole-grain bread, whole grain pasta, brown rice, wild rice, oats, barley, buckwheat, bulgur, popcorn, millet, amaranth, spelt, kamut, and quinoa are all foods mentioned in the article.
4. Name and describe the people/population groups used in the research studies mentioned in the article.
One six-year study followed 40,000 male health professionals aged 40-75. Another study followed 27,000 postmenopausal women for 17 years. Another study followed 50 obese adults.
There were several other studies mentioned in the article that did not specify what people or population groups were being studied.
5. According to the article, what are the findings related to fiber and disease prevention?
One study found that the men with the highest fiber intake were 40% less likely to have a heart attack. Another study showed that the women who ate the most whole grains were 30% less likely to die of heart disease. Another group of studies showed that people who ate oatmeal had an average reduction in total cholesterol of about 8 mg/dL and a decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol of about 7 mg/dL. The final study mentioned in the article showed that obese adults that ate a low-calorie diet rich in whole grains lost more abdominal fat than the obese adults who ate a low calorie diet rich in refined grains. The study also showed that the people in the whole grain group saw their levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) decrease by 38%
6. Which findings related to fiber and disease prevention have strong supporting evidence?
According to the article fibers role in reducing abdominal fat and CRP levels did not have dissenting opinions.
7. Which findings related to fiber and disease prevention have less certain evidence?
What makes the evidence uncertain?
Fiber’s role in reducing blood cholesterol was found with a group of eight small trials; however, the article stated that the studies were of poor quality and funded by the oatmeal industry.
Fiber’s role in reducing the risk of heart disease is not conclusive. The results of the study might stem from things other than fiber, including the overall health of the whole-grain eater, smoking, or physical activity.
8. Thinking about your own diet, what changes could you make to your own eating habits to increase the amount of fiber you eat?
I could start my day off with whole-grain cereal instead of my usual soft drink and doughnut. I could switch from regular pasta to whole-grain pasta. Finally I could snack on air-popped popcorn instead of cookies. Overall the article has made me more aware of the possible benefits of a diet rich in whole grains. I knew that it was recommended, but I did not know why. Now that I understand fiber’s possible role in preventing heart disease, if I have a choice between wholegrains or refined I will choose whole-grains every time.
Fuchs, C. S., Giovannucci, E. L., Colditz, G. A., Hunter, D. J., Stampfer, M. J., Rosner, B & Willett, W. C. (1999).Dietary fiber and the risk of colorectal cancer and adenoma in women. New England Journal of Medicine, 340(3), 169-176. Retrieved from Online Journal on England medicine....
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