Mini Case Study #1: Craig’s Carb Concerns
Craig’s mother thinks he needs to lose weight and recommends he go on a high-protein diet such as the Atkins Diet. She tells him that you can eat all the meat, eggs, cheese, and chicken you want but need to limit your intake of breads, cereals, potatoes, rice, vegetables, and fruits. Craig agrees he would like to be more fit (at 28, he’s 5’10” and weighs 195#), and since he loves meat, he starts to seriously consider this plan. He mentions this to his girlfriend Carla and she tries to dissuade him. Carla is currently taking a course in nutrition at the local college and she is learning why this may not be the best diet for Craig. She says, “Why would you go on a diet that limits your intake of the healthiest foods on the planet?” Then Carla adds, “Don’t you know that when you go on a high-protein diet, you put your body into ketosis and lose muscle tissue?” Carla recommends increasing his physical activity and reducing how much energy he takes in to promote weight loss.
1) Calculate Craig’s BMI. Is weight loss appropriate for him at this time?
2) What foods and chemicals is Carla referring to as “the healthiest foods on the planet” and what are some of the health benefits associated with diets high in these foods?
3) When does ketosis occur and what are some consequences of this condition and why would a person lose muscle tissue while on a high-protein diet?
4) If Craig were to try Carla’s suggestion, how many calories would you recommend he aim for and how much exercise should he get? Show any calculations.
5) Why are low-carb diets so popular and what are some of their positive and negative consequences?

Mini Case Study #2: Michael’s Marathon Training
Michael is a 33 year old veteran of the Marine Corps. Since leaving the military ten years ago, Michael has been working as a salesman, where he spends most of his day at a desk. When he enlisted at the age of 18, he weighed 156 pounds. At the end of his military service he was 181 pounds, and today he weighs 190 pounds (ht = 5’11”). Although his weight has not changed much since leaving the military, he began to feel he was getting out of shape because of his sedentary lifestyle. He has recently begun exercising again and is trying to improve his diet in order to “get toned.” He is started strength training with a personal trainer twice per week, and runs for 20-30 min 1-2 times per week. Michael’s diet contains a lot of food from restaurants such as Chipotle and Panera, in addition to protein shakes, which he often has each morning and before training. A 24-hr recall reveals that with his protein shakes, Michael is consuming ~110 grams of protein daily. Michael comes to you because he wants to train for the Marine Corps Marathon. His proposed plan is to increase his running to 1-2 hours per day, 5-6 days per week, and continue his weight training.
6) What are the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans? How does Michael’s current level activity measure up to them? Are there changes he should make to reach these recommendations?
7) How does his current intake compare to his estimated protein needs? Do you recommend Michael continue using his protein supplement? Discuss the pros and cons of using a protein supplement.
8) Michael is nervous about drinking enough water for his long runs. How would you advise Michael regarding his fluid consumption? Do you recommend beverages other than water? Why or why not?
9) What are Michael’s carbohydrate needs based on his current exercise? If he increased his running to begin marathon training, how would you recommend he change his carbohydrate intake?
10) As Michael continues to train, he will be able to run longer and faster. Explain what the physiological effects are of Michael’s training that will enable this.

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2) What foods and chemicals is Carla referring to as “the healthiest foods on the planet” and what are some of the health benefits associated with diets high in these foods?

When Carla mentions “the healthiest foods on the planet” she probably refers to fruit and to some types of vegetables that have to be limited in the Atkins diet since they contain high levels of sugar.
Vegetables and fruit are important sources of many nutrients, including potassium, dietary fibers, folic acid, vitamin A, and vitamin C. Dietary fibers help reduce blood cholesterol levels, are important for proper bowel function, and help provide a feeling of fullness with fewer calories. Eating a diet rich in vegetables and fruits may reduce risk for heart disease, including heart attack and stroke and protect against certain types of cancers. Eating vegetables and fruit rich in potassium as part of an overall healthy diet may lower blood pressure, and may also reduce the risk of developing kidney stones and help to decrease bone loss....

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