Please answer the following questions related to the measurement and analysis of tibio-femoral joint movement.

Q1. Mrs Bones, a consultant orthopaedic surgeon who performs Total Knee Replacements (TKRs) has asked you to measure the knee joint range of motion, laxity and constraint for her patients who have undergone a total knee replacement. Using infrared cameras and marker-based motion capture, how would you determine these parameters? In your answer provide a detailed description of the data collection and analysis protocols, the difference between anatomical and tracking markers and describe possible sources of error associated with this process.

Q2. What are the biomechanical features of the knee for osteoarthritic, post-Total Knee Replacement (TKR) gait and healthy? Please cover the following in your answer:
A) Features in the sagittal, frontal and transverse plane
B) Hence determine which data set you think belongs to healthy, osteoarthritic and post-TKR gait and why (in Appendix 1), giving reasons why.

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Question 1: Determining the knee range of motion, laxity and constrain requires an anatomical calibration to assess three body-landmarks which are then used to establish a segmental body axis system. This system is used to calculate the angular movement of the knee and for obtaining graphs and information on patterns of joint inter-segmental rotations and translations. The calculations of the knee angles assume that observed body segments behave as rigid bodies. To determine the location of these specific sections, the markers are usually placed on the skin along the lower extremities so that the starting and end vector...

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