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Inferential Biostatistics Set Instructions: Please copy/paste your individual answers and work to this document You may use extra space when necessary Question 1) Create bar chart for the data on serum Cholesterol for non- Hispanic whites, based on the data table provide below. high value of serum cholesterol is thought to be a risk factor for heart disease. The National Cholesterol Education Program of the National Institutes of Health in 1987 stated that the recommended value for serum cholesterol is below 200, and value above 240 may indicate problem, and recommended that lipoprotein analysis should be performed. Based on these data, it appears that many non Hispanic whites have serum cholesterol values that are too high, particularly women. The medical literature is also finally beginning to recognize that homocysteine is very important risk factor for heart disease, even in people with normal serum cholesterol. Give some possible reasons why non- Hispanic white males have higher mortality from heart and cerebrovascular diseases when it appears from these data that non- Hispanic white females should have higher rates. Second National Health and Nutrition Exam (Source: NCHS, 1981) Gender Age (n) Mean Serum Cholesterol (mg/dL) Male 40-49 572 223.5 50-59 575 228.9 60-69 1354 226.2 70-74 427 215.8 Female 40-49 615 218.5 50-59 649 243.6 60-69 1487 249.0 70-74 533 248.3 Question 2) Use line graphs to represent the short stay hospital rates; and discuss trends you find these data. Hospital Ownership (Source: NCHS, 1992) Federal Nonprofit Proprietary State/Local 1960 82.5 76.6 65.4 71.6 1970 77.5 80.1 72.2 73.2 1975 77.6 77.4 65.9 69.7 1980 77.8 78.2 65.2 70.7 1985 74.3 67.2 52.1 62.8 1989 71.0 68.8 51.7 64.8 All data above (excluding the first column of years) represent percentages of patients that were admitted short -term within the given hospitala the given year Question 3) Lee (1980) presented survival times in months from diagnosis for 70 patients with either acute myeloblastic leukemia (AML) or acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Calculate the sample mean ad median for both AML and ALL patients separately Which measure do you believe is more appropriate to use with these data? Explain. AMI. Patients: 18, 31, 31, 36, 01, 09, 39, 20 04, 45, 36, 12, 08, 01, 15. 24. 02, 33. 29, 07. 00. 01. 02, 12, 09. 01. 01, 09. 05, 27, 01, 13, 01, 05, 01, 03, 04, 01, 18, 01, 02, 01, 08, 03, 04, 14, 03, 13, 13, 01 ALL Patients: 16, 25, 01.22.12. 12. 74,01, 16, 09.21.09. 64, 35.01.07. 03, ou 01, 22 Question 4) Based on the data from the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (HHANES) (LSRO 1989), the mean serum cholesterol for Mexican- American males age 20 74 was 203. The standard deviation was approximately 44mg/dL. Assume the serum cholesterol follows a normal distribution. What is the probability that Mexican- American male 20-74 has a serum cholesterol value greater than 240? Question 5) The mean endurance time for sample of 36girls 4-5 years old was 9.5 minutes with standard deviatione of 1.86 minutes. If we assume that these are the true population mean and standard deviation, and if we also assume that the endurance time follows normal distribution, what the probability of observing 4 year old girl with an endurance of 'minutes ? Is the data set normally distributed? Explain your answer Question 6) Please review the table on the next page. Calculate the mean state proportion of those without health insurance The population mean for those without health insurance is 14.1 First, calculate the overall sample mean of those without health insurance Second, pick a region of your choice and calo culate the sample mean for those without health insurance in that region Are the sample means the same as the overall U.S percentage, or in other words, though it may not be an exactly similar number are you able to confidently say that the sample means truly reflect the population mean? Why or why not? (Table for Question 6 on the next page) Source: US Bureau of the Census, 2011-2014 State Population K Without Health State Population %Without Health Insurance Insurance New England East South Central ME 1.23 11.1 - 3.69 13.1 10. TN 4.88 0,56 127 17.9 6.02 10.9 MS 2.57 18.9 1.00 10.2 3.29 7.5 West South Central Mid- Atlantic AR 2.35 15.7 NY 17.99 12.3 LA 4.22 20. 10.8 OK 3.15 18.2 11.88 7.8 TX 16.99 22.1 East North Central Mountain 10.85 10.3 MT 0.80 12.7 5.54 13.0 17.8 11.43 11.5 wY 0.45 9.0 4.89 8.0 NM 16.9 West North Central un 13.8 0.64 7 ° NV 1.20 18.7 0.70 9.9 1.58 8.3 Pacific 2.48 11.4 WA 4.87 10.4 1.38 9.3 OR 2.84 14.2 2.78 8.8 CA 29.76 18.7 5.12 12.2 AK 0.55 13.2 HI 1.11 7.0 South Atlanti 0.67 13.2 4.78 13.1 6.19 16. 12.94 18.6 6.63 14.9 3.49 6.48 14.1 0.61 Population is expressed inmillions.

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Question 1)
The cholesterol level is not the only risk factor and predictor of cardiovascular diseases mortality. There are others known and unknown factors that should be considered. One of the known risk factor is blood homocysteine level, which is not presented in the table. It could be that the males have significantly higher level of homocysteine in blood compared to females. The other explanation is that female sex hormones are protective against cardiovascular mortality and because of them females have lower risk of mortality form heart and cerebrovascular diseases....

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