QuestionQuestion

This chapter includes a description of the data collected for your study or the outcomes of your project. It is simply a description of the data or the outcomes, it does not include any interpretation of what they may mean (that is for the final chapter).
Please read the below for a detailed description on how to complete this step.
Step 7 - The Results ChapterPreview the document
In a 4-6 page paper written in IWG format, and attached as a Microsoft Word document, complete the Results Chapter.

The Results Chapter
This chapter needs to include (use the bolded items as main headings for the Chapter):
1. An introduction to what will be covered in the chapter - Describe what the reader will encounter in the Results Chapter
2. A description of each of the outcomes of the project or findings of the study (use a subheading for each finding) - Use tables, graphs or figures to detail the results of the data analysis or outcomes of the project.
3. Remember this is only a description of the results, no interpretation or meaning should be included here.
4. A conclusion or summary that summarizes what was presented in the chapter. In condensed fashion tell the reader what they just encountered.

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Alcohol and substance abuse among the elderly is emerging as a serious healthcare issue with the number rising from 1.7 million in 2000 and predicted to reach over 4.4 million people by the year 2020 (Chhatre, Cook, Mallik, & Jayadevappa, 2017). One of the possible causes of the rise in the number elderly people using alcohol and other drugs is the equal growth in the number of individuals aged over 50 years, with one study observing a double growth of this population between the year 2000 and 2007 (Chhatre et al., 2017). In another study, the elderly adults were identified among the fastest growing population with its share in the US population expected to reach over 20% by the year 2040 (Tadros, Mason, Davidov, Davis, & Layman, 2015). Alcohol and substance abuse among the elderly is emerging as a serious health care issue because of the associated long-term adverse effects on the health and quality of life of the population. Among the leading causes of alcohol and substance abuse in this population include psychosocial and socioeconomic factors such as loneliness, mental health issues, and financial instability. The evaluation of the socioeconomic and psychosocial triggers of alcohol and substance abuse will pave the way for the identification of evidence-based preventive measures to reduce the prevalence of this problem.   
Background of the Problem
Between the year 2006 and 2011, the number of elderly patients presenting to the emergency department for alcohol and drug-related disorders were over 1.6 million with approximately 66% of these patients being hospitalized for alcohol and substance-induced complications (Tadros et al., 2015). The burden of care and the medical costs from treating alcohol and substance-related disorders and complications have been overwhelming with financial estimations between 2006 and 2011 showing over $ 2.1 billion for ED presentation and discharge and over $ 40 billion for alcohol-related hospitalizations (Tadros et al., 2015). The overwhelming burden of care and huge medical expenses associated with treating alcohol-related complications among the elderly necessitate the examination of underlying risk factors while informing the identification of effective and appropriate preventive measures to avert the long-term complications. In another study, approximately a third of elderly hospitalized patients had alcohol and substance use problem (Lal & Pattanayak, 2017).
Multiple studies have identified psychological and socioeconomic factors as some of the leading risk factors for alcohol and substance abuse among the elderly (Cho, Bhimani, Patel, & Thomas, 2018; Mushtaq, Shoib, Shah, & Mushtaq, 2014). Other studies have also developed a connection between prevalence of alcohol and substance abuse among the elderly and the Baby Boom generation (born between 1949 and 1964) because of prolonged exposure, early onset of alcohol use, and use of alcohol and drugs when faced with socioeconomic and psychiatric problems, as well as, socialization (Babatunde, Outlaw, Forbes, & Gay, 2014; Chhatre et al., 2017). In a Pew Research publication, the number of elderly individuals (over 65 years) living alone in the United States was approximately 12 million with 12% of this population claiming to be financially unstable (Stepler, 2016). In Europe, the financial crisis of the 2000s was attributed to a massive change in the drinking behaviors of elderly adults with hazardous drinking behaviors increasing among those who lost jobs or had lower financial stability (Bosque-Prous et al., 2015). In addition to socioeconomic factors, mental health issues such as depression and anxiety have also been linked to increased susceptibility to drugs and alcohol abuse (Cleary, Sayers, Bramble, Jackson, & Lopez, 2017; Emiliussen, Nielsen, & Andersen, 2017; Haighton, 2016). Mental or psychological issues including self-perceived loss of control or influence, self-perceived poor health, and depression have been identified as some of the leading causes of alcohol and drug use among the elderly. The impact of these conditions on decision making and the perceived benefits of alcohol and drugs to mask these problems have emerged as some of the predictors of alcohol use among the elderly. This study will focus primarily on the socioeconomic and psychological risk factors for alcohol and drug use among the elderly.
Problem Statement
Alcohol and drug use among the elderly have been linked to adverse health outcomes including chronic illnesses, substance-induced mental disorders, death, and the overwhelming cost of care (Cleary et al., 2017; Chhatre et al., 2017; Lal & Pattanayak, 2017; Tadros et al., 2015). The burden of care and the increased risks for other comorbid factors necessitate the identification of risk factors that trigger this behavior while implementing evidence-based interventions to improve health outcomes of the population. Additionally, the rise in the number of elderly patients and an increase in age-based stressors such as loneliness, depression, anxiety, and low self-perceived health status, necessitate the accurate determination of existing relationships between these age-related psychological conditions and use of drugs and alcohol. The study from the Pew Research Center that shows an increase in the number of elderly individuals living alone and facing financial challenges also influence the accurate identification of socioeconomic risk factors and psychological risk factors for alcohol and drug use (Stepler, 2016). The correlation between alcohol-induced disorders and high risks of hospitalization of elderly patients presenting to the ED underscores a thorough analysis of risk factors to avert and reduce such complications.
Purpose Statement
Preventive healthcare interventions have emerged as crucial strategies for reducing adverse health events and preventing health-related complications that can lead to death or reduced quality of life (Sabbath et al., 2018; Taksler, Pfoh, Stange, & Rothberg, 2018). The identification and a thorough review of the socioeconomic and psychological risk factors for alcohol and substance abuse among the elderly would inform the utilization of preventive health services to ensure that the elderly at risks of alcohol and drug-use behaviors are identified and assisted appropriately. Besides, the...

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