Question

Answer the following questions:

1. An inductively valid argument is a cogent argument.

[ ] True
[ ] False


2. “Only two of the last five candidates endorsed by the Teachers’ Union won their elections compared to six of the previous ten. Clearly the Teachers’ Union’s political influence is waning.”

This is an example of:

[ ] A. A deductively valid argument
[ ] B. A deductively sound argument
[ ] C. An inductively strong argument
[ ] D. An inductively weak argument


3. “In the Vietnam War, which we lost, the U.S. had not articulated a clear rationale for fighting. There was no exit strategy, our military tactics were inconsistent, and the military’s estimation of enemy strength was unrealistic. In Afghanistan, the U.S. has not articulated a clear rationale for fighting, there is no exit strategy, our military tactics are inconsistent and the military’s estimation of enemy strength is unrealistic. Therefore, we will lose the war in Afghanistan, as well.”

This is an example of:

[ ] A. A strong enumerative argument
[ ] B. A weak enumerative argument
[ ] C. A strong analogical argument
[ ] D. A weak analogical argument


4. “The nurses at Beth Israel are burned out, stressed out and overworked. Just ask the ones in the ER. I was just there. They’ll tell you they are absolutely miserable!”

This is an example of:
[ ] A. A strong enumerative argument
[ ] B. A weak enumerative argument
[ ] C. A strong analogical argument
[ ] D. A weak analogical argument


5. We might invoke “Ockham’s razor” when the explanations presented to us are:

[ ] A. Highly implausible
[ ] B. Overly complex
[ ] C. Exceedingly rare
[ ] D. Contrary to conventional wisdom


6. “The majority of college students are pleased that Republicans have regained control of the House. Surveys of almost five hundred members of Young Republicans from schools around the country confirm this.”

[ ] A. A strong inductive argument
[ ] B. A weak deductive argument
[ ] C. An invalid inductive argument
[ ] D. A weak inductive argument


7. “People with low grade‐point averages in high school are seldom high achievers. But Albert Einstein had a low grade‐point average in high school. So the previous claim is false.”

This is an example of:

[ ] A. An effective use of a counterexample
[ ] B. An ineffective use of a counterexample
[ ] C. An effective use of an analogy
[ ] D. A ineffective use of an analogy


8. For an inductive argument to be strong, at least one of the premises must be true.

[ ] True
[ ] False


9. If an argument contains all true premises and a true conclusion, which of the following statements is not true:

[ ] A. If the argument is deductive, it is valid
[ ] B. If the argument is inductive, it is defeasible
[ ] C. If the argument is strong, it is cogent
[ ] D. If the argument is valid, it is sound


10. Having four sides is [__?__] for being a square.

[ ] A. Necessary, but not sufficient
[ ] B. Sufficient, but not necessary
[ ] C. Both necessary and sufficient
[ ] D. Neither necessary nor sufficient


11. “I will pay for lunch if and only if you pay for dinner.” My paying for lunch is
[__?__] for your paying for dinner.

[ ] A. Necessary, but not sufficient
[ ] B. Sufficient, but not necessary
[ ] C. Both necessary and sufficient
[ ] D. Neither necessary nor sufficient


12. Joan is scratched by a cat while visiting her friend. Two days later, Joan breaks out in a rash. She concludes that the cat’s scratch caused the rash.

This is an example of:

[ ] A. A reasonable inductive conclusion
[ ] B. Mill’s Method of Agreement
[ ] C. Mill’s Method of Difference
[ ] D. Post hoc, ergo propter hoc


13. “The only way to stop terrorists from committing their horrible crimes is to inflict enough pain on them to scare them off or to force them to reveal information that enables the police to head off terrorist attacks. Therefore, terrorists cannot be stopped without torture.”

This is an example of:

[ ] A. An invalid deductive argument
[ ] B. A valid circular argument
[ ] C. A strong irrelevant argument
[ ] D. A weak inductive argument


14. Being divisible (without remainder) by 1004 is sufficient for being an even number.

[ ] True
[ ] False


15. Educators have frequently noted that the higher a person’s education level is, the higher his or her salary is likely to be. The conclusion is that education increases earnings power.

This is an example of:

[ ] A. Mill’s Joint Method of Agreement and Difference
[ ] B. Mill’s Method of Agreement
[ ] C. Mill’s Method of Concomitant Variation
[ ] D. Mill’s Method of Difference


16. Being a dog is [__?__] for being a golden retriever.

[ ] A. Necessary, but not sufficient
[ ] B. Sufficient, but not necessary
[ ] C. Both necessary and sufficient
[ ] D. Neither necessary nor sufficient


17. Having a son is [__?__] for being a parent.

[ ] A. Necessary, but not sufficient
[ ] B. Sufficient, but not necessary
[ ] C. Both necessary and sufficient
[ ] D. Neither necessary nor sufficient


18. In defending his decision to pass on a promotion offered just six months after starting his current job, Bill told the story of the tortoise and the hare.   

This is an example of:

[ ] A. A causal argument
[ ] B. A correlative argument
[ ] C. A deductive argument
[ ] D. An analogical argument


19. A student in my last class told me that I was her favorite professor, and I know that she is telling the truth because, after all, no student would lie to her favorite professor!

This is an example of:

[ ] A. Begging the question
[ ] B. Circularity
[ ] C. Red herring
[ ] D. Slippery Slope


20. Being the tallest building in all of Massachusetts entails being the tallest building in Boston.

[ ] True
[ ] False


21. Being an unmarried man is [__?__] for being a bachelor (in its traditional meaning, not the modern notion of not currently dating someone).

[ ] A. Necessary, but not sufficient
[ ] B. Sufficient, but not necessary
[ ] C. Both necessary and sufficient
[ ] D. Neither necessary nor sufficient


22. In states where same‐sex marriage is legal, being homosexual is [__?__] for being in a same sex marriage.

[ ] A. Necessary, but not sufficient
[ ] B. Sufficient, but not necessary
[ ] C. Both necessary and sufficient
[ ] D. Neither necessary nor sufficient


23. To be a true Kantian, it is [__?__] to treat people as ends in themselves and not mere means to an end.

[ ] A. Necessary, but not sufficient
[ ] B. Sufficient, but not necessary
[ ] C. Both necessary and sufficient
[ ] D. Neither necessary nor sufficient


24. Which of the following is not necessary for a good argument:

[ ] A. The argument must be valid
[ ] B. The premises must be meaningful
[ ] C. The premises must be relevant
[ ] D. The premises must be plausible


25. Consider the following argument:

(P1) Search warrants are an indispensible feature of the criminal justice system.
(P2) Search warrants are morally permissible.
(P3) Torture warrants are just like search warrants.
(C1) Torture warrants are morally permissible.
(C2) Torture warrants should be an indispensible feature of the military justice system.

What is (P3) called in moral reasoning:

[ ] A. A sub‐argument
[ ] B. An evaluative premise
[ ] C. An analogical premise
[ ] D. A morally relevant premise

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1. False (Cogency requires validity and true premises)
2. C
3. D (Compares aspects of a single conceptual observation to the similarities of another observation)
4. B (form of some As are B, therefore all As are B. But maybe nurses in a different ER are less stressed?
5. B (the principle predicts that two arguments of equal strength should be prioritized by number of assumptions – the fewer, the better)...

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