1- If an ethical theory specifies rules or principles separate from...

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1- If an ethical theory specifies rules or principles separate from, or as more foundational than, a theory of the good, then what is it?
a) A utilitarian theory.
b) A theory of the right.
c) A theory of the good.
d) A theory of intrinsic good.

2- Kant's moral theory is an example of
a) ...a utilitarian theory.
b) ...a deontological theory.
c) ...a theory of the right.
d) both B and C above.

3- What is the supreme moral principle of Kant's ethics?
a) The utility principle.
b) The principle of side constraints.
c) The principle of non-maleficence.
d) The categorical imperative.

4- For Kant, what has moral worth is that we intend to do our duty for duty's sake. What does not matter morally is what comes about as a result of our good intentions. What is this element in his moral theory called?
a) Deontological relativism.
b) Non-consequentialism.
c) People as ends-in-themselves.
d) Respect for persons.

5- Which of the following is NOT a duty, for Kant?
a) To help needful other motivated by sympathy for their condition.
b) To preserve our own life.
c) To refrain from making false promises.
d) To improve ourselves.

6- Why are rational beings worthy of moral respect, for Kant?
a) Because they are capable of pleasure and pain.
b) Because they are the inheritors of the Earth according to a divine plan.
c) Because they are rational.
d) Because they are end-in-themselves, and their worth is absolute, not relative to the goals of individuals or societies.

7- The "universal law" version of the CI specifies our duties. What does the second version (introduced at the end of the first Module 9 Kant selection) tell us about?
a) Our relationship with God.
b) Our relationships with other persons.
c) Our duties toward animals.
d) Our environmental duties.

8- French philosopher and social critic Benjamin Constant held that "The moral principle, 'It is a duty to tell the truth," would make any society impossible if it were taken singly and unconditionally." Kant disagrees, but what is his reasoning?
a) Telling the truth is a duty because it maximizes happiness.
b) Telling the truth is an absolute duty because lying does injury to the moral law itself.
c) Telling the truth is a duty because without honesty, it is impossible to use the categorical imperative.
d) Telling the truth is right as long as it is generally recognized in one's culture that truthfulness is valuable.

9- In Rae Langton's criticism of Kant's ethics, she focuses on a Kant reaction to a violation of moral duty by Maria von Herbert. What was this violation?
a) Maria failed to be completely honest with a love interest.
b) Maria killed a puppy.
c) Maria reacted inappropriately to her fiancee's reticence.
d) Maria committed suicide.

10- In his final letter regarding Maria, Kant himself fails to live up to his own moral duties. What, specifically, does he do?
a) He lies about Maria's depression.
b) He is reticent to disclose facts about Maria.
c) He fails to treat Maria with respect, as an "end-in-herself."
d) He publicly discloses facts about Maria's case that he had promised to keep secret.

11- Jonathan Bennett claims that his essay "The Conscience of Huckleberry Finn" is a study in the relationship between bad morality and what?
a) Duty.
b) Fidelity.
c) Respect.
d) Sympathy.

12- Although Bennett never mentions Kant, clearly there is a criticism of Kantian ethics at the heart of his essay. What is it?
a) Kant respects certain persons (men) over others (women).
b) Kant emphasizes duty to the exclusion of all sympathy, and commits the same error as Himmler did.
c) Kant's categorical imperative is incoherent.
d) Kant is a misanthropic person, hating all humankind as Jonathan Edwards did.

13- Which of the following philosophers is NOT a utilitarian?
a) Peter Singer
b) James Mill
c) John Rawls
d) Henry Sidgwick

14- Rule utilitarianism is the view that
a) We need rules that generally maximize utility in the long run, even if they do not so so in the short tun.
b) We need to calculate utilities in each and every situation that demands a moral response.
c) Rules should be used by enlightened utilitarians to bypass the needs of the larger public.
d) We need rules that generally maximize utility in the short run, even if they do not so so in the long tun.

15- The philosopher who first raised the utilitarian issue of the "problem of future generations" was
a) William James
b) John Stuart Mill
c) John Rawls
d) Henry Sidgwick

16- What is the name for Bentham's method for calculating utility?
a) The Utility Calculator.
b) The Hedonic Calculus.
c) The Utility Principle.
d) The Categorical Imperative

17- Controversially, J.J.C. Smart says that if present-day "atrocities" could drastically increase the happiness of future generations, it would be right to commit those atrocities. But what, according to him, is the flaw in this reasoning?
a) Smart is a rule utilitarian, so he believes that rules invalidate the possibility of using such "atrocities" for such purposes.
b) Smart is a Kantian, so he believes we need to respect persons and this outlaws such "atrocities."
c) Smart is a Kantian, and he believes that the CI invalidates the use of such "atrocities."
d) We cannot reliably connect "atrocities" today (as a cause) to produce happiness in the future (as an effect), although "tyrants" often try to do so.

18- Rawls criticizes utilitarianism by saying that it conceives of society as an "organism," or as one human being with conflicing needs and desires that must be balanced. What's wrong with this view, according to Rawls?
a) It does not take into account our natural rights.
b) It violates the spirit of rule utilitarianism.
c) It violates our basic liberties.
d) It is a false analogy that sees individuals as simply parts of a bigger system, which they are not.

19- What, according to Bernard Williams, is key to our sense of morality, yet ignored by utilitarians?
a) Integrity.
b) A sense of duty.
c) A sense of respect.
d) A sense of justice.

20- What is Sidgwick implying about the "community in which the Utilitarian is actually living" in this passage? "[T]he Utilitarian may have no doubt that in a community consisting generally of enlightened Utilitarians, these grounds for exceptional ethical treatment would be regarded as valid; still he may, as I have said, doubt whether the more refined and complicated rule which recognizes such exceptions is adapted for the community in which he is actually living, and whether the attempt to introduce it is not likely to do more harm by weakening current morality than good by improving its quality."
a) Moral anarchy reigns in places where utilitarianism isn't the law
b) There may need to be one set of rules for deep ethical thinkers, and another for everyday people
c) No one can really predict the consequences of actions to judge the greatest good
d) Future generations will thank utilitarians for using such a refined standard of moral judgment

21- Who is the author of the following text? "Sum up all the values of all the pleasures on the one side, and those of all the pains on the other. The balance, if it be on the side of pleasure, will give the good tendency of the act upon the whole, with respect to the interests of that individual persons; if on the side of pain, the bad tendency of it upon the whole."
a) Bentham
b) James
c) Sidgwick
d) Bernard Williams

22- What point is Bernard Williams making with the following story? "Jim finds himself in the central square of a small South American town. Tied up against the wall are a row of twenty Indians, most terrified, a few defiant, in front of them several armed men in uniform. A heavy man in a sweat-stained khaki shirt turns out to be the captain in charge and, after a good deal of questioning of Jim which establishes that he got there by accident while on a botanical expedition, explains that the Indians are a random group of the inhabitants who, after recent acts of protest against the government, are just about to be killed to remind other possible protestors of the advantages of not protesting."
b) It's a bad idea to go to South American towns without checking the Frommer's Guide first
b) Any cultural relativist must inevitably be an ethical relativist
c) Kant was more accurate than Mill about the source of duty
d) Sometimes the answer that maximizes the good still isn't the right answer

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