1. In the slide show for Module 6, we saw Aristotle's reasoning abo...

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1. In the slide show for Module 6, we saw Aristotle's reasoning about why happiness is the ultimate good. What "senseless" question did his chain of questions eventually lead to?
a. "What is reason for?"
b. "Why do you want to be happy?"
c. "Is life merely a series of unconnected pleasures?"
d. "What is the Matrix?"

2. If something that is good is intrinsically good, then
a. ...it must be valued for its own sake.
b. ...it does not draw its value from being a means to an end.
c. ...it is not merely instrumentally good.
d. All of the above.

3. The Buddhist ethic of the Middle Eightfold Path charts a course between which two options for living?
a. Hedonism and Stoicism
b. The pleasures of sense and total self-denial
c. Contemplation and activity
d. Being a leader or a follower

4. Which of these is the most accurate understanding of happiness, for Aristotle?
a. "The activity of philosophic contemplation according to reason."
b. "The following of all duties according to reason."
c. "Pleasure and the absence of pain."
d. "Contemplation of one's place in the divine plan."

5. Epicurus the hedonist aims at a life of pleasure or, at the least, one in which pain is absent. One of the things that causes us pain is the thought of our own death. Which of the following quotes from Epicurus gives us a good reason not to fear death?
a. "...[S]ometimes we pass over many pleasures, when greater discomfort accrues to us as the result of them..."
b. "But the wise man neither seeks to escape life nor fear the cessatio of life..."
c. "For all good and evil consists in sensation, and death is deprivation of sensation."
d. "To grow accustomed therefore to simple and not luxurious diet gives us health to the full, and makes a man alert for the needful employment of life..."

6. Both Epictetus the Stoic and Jesus of Nazareth give their followers advice on how to deal with life's difficulties. What is the most significant difference between their ethical philosophies?
a. Epictetus was a Roman slave, Jesus a free Jew.
b. Jesus preached to the public while Epictetus wrote down his ideas for posterity.
c. Epictetus argued against the idea of a "city on a hill."
d. Epictetus believed all our action was in service of a good life on this earth, while Jesus believed that what we did was in service of our soul's "next life."

7. Which of the following is the "moral" of Voltaire's story "The Good Brahmin"?
a. Philosophic wisdom does not always bring contentment.
b. Ignorance is the worst of all vices.
c. Seeking the Middle Path is virtuous.
d. Wash your hair every day.

8. Which of these philosophers had views that were attacked as "a philosophy fit only for pigs"?
a. Jeremy Bentham
b. John Stuart Mill
c. Henry Sidgwick
d. G.E. Moore

9. What does J.S. Mill mean when he writes, "It is better to be a human being dissatisfied than a pig satisfied; better to be Socrates dissatisfied than a fool satisfied"?
a. Some pleasures are qualitatively better than others.
b. If you are capable of experiencing qualitatively better pleasures, then there is something wrong with only pursuing lower pleasures.
c. The Socratic idea of "an unexamined life is not worth living" should be reinterpreted in terms of pleasures and pains.
d. Both A and B above.

10. Which of the following is the supreme moral principle of John Stuart Mill's ethics?
a. The categorical imperative.
b. The maximization of satisfied preferences.
c. The utility principle.
d. The principle of benevolence.

11. Which of the following goods did G.E. Moore think was intrinsically good?
a. Pleasure
b. Beauty
c. The good will
d. Teddy bears

12. Which of the following terms best describes Sisyphus, from the excerpt from Camus' "Myth of Sisyphus"?
a. A utility-maximizer
b. Originator of the idea of side constraints.
c. An "absurd hero."
d. A "tragic enemy."

13. Which of the following sets of authors take their moral philosophy from the "Natural Ethics Ideal" discussed in the slide show for Module Eight?
a. Bentham and Mill
b. Aquinas and Voltaire
c. Locke and Aquinas
d. Huxley and Camus

14. What is being referred to in the 1980 Declaration by the Vatican where it says, "[It] is an action or an omission which of itself or by intention causes death, in order that all suffering may in this way be eliminated"?
a. Murder.
b. Abortion.
c. Natural law.
d. Euthanasia.

15. In his argument for natural rights as "side constraints," Robert Nozick asks the following question: "Why not, similarly, hold that some persons have to bear some costs that benefit other persons more, for the sake of the overall social good?" What is his response to this question?
a. Utiltarians always calculate incorrectly when they think this way.
b. There is no way to predict the consequences of our actions.
c. Reason specifies strict duties that we cannot violate in asking others to bear our burdens.
d. There are only individuals with their good, no "social entity" that has a good.

16. Who is the author of the following text? "But this much I can say with assurance, as a result of all of my experiments, that a perfect vision of Truth can only follow a complete realization of Ahimsa."
a. Albert Camus
b. Mohandas Gandhi
c. Jeremy Bentham
d. John Stuart Mill

17. Who is the author of the following text? "We must consider that of desires some are natural, others vain, and of the natural some are necessary for happiness, others for the repose of the body, and others for very life. The right understanding of these facts enables us to refer all choice and avoidance to the health of the body and the soul's freedom from disturbance, since this is the aim of the life of blessedness."
a. Epictetus
b. Aristotle
c. The Buddha
d. Epicurus

18. John Stuart Mill has a number of memorable images for remembering the basics of utilitarianism. Who is his example of "a being of higher faculties" in the following quote? "A being of higher faculties requires more to make him happy, is capable probably of more acute suffering, and is certainly accessible to it at more points, than one of an inferior type; but in spite of these liabilities, he can never really wish to sink into what he feels to be a lower grade of existence."
a. Socrates
b. A pig
c. The fool
d. Epicurus

19. John Stuart Mill criticizes both natural rights and natural law theories from the perspective that they fail to provide justification for their rules. What term, key to their theories, is Mill definining when he writes, "[It] has two principal meanings: it either denotes the entire system of things, with the aggregate of all their properties, or it denotes things as they would be, apart from human intervention"?
a. "Right"
b. "Law"
c. "Nature"
d. "Evil"

20. What is St. Thomas Aquinas describing here? "Consequently the first principle in the practical reason is one founded on the notion of good, viz., that good is to be done and ensued, and evil is to be avoided."
a. Human rights
b. Moral emotions
c. Natural law
d. Basic instincts

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1. b. "Why do you want to be happy?"
2. a. All of the above.
3. a. The pleasures of sense and total self-denial...

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