1. In Chapter 1 of The Elements of Morality (text available here), ...

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1. In Chapter 1 of The Elements of Morality (text available here), James Rachels describes the case of “Baby Teresa”, an anencephalic infant whose organs could be removed and given “to other children who could benefit from them.”
Evaluate the prospect of transplanting her organs via the respective positions of the divine command theory and utilitarianism. Your discussion should address the following considerations:
-How would a divine command theorist evaluate Baby Teresa’s case (i.e. what would their argument look like?)
-How would a utilitarian evaluate the case?
-What potential flaws are found in these respective approaches?

2. Suppose I have a friend who consistently refuses to put the interests of others before his own,and believes that there is nothing morally wrong with this. Common sense morality suggests that he ought (at least some of the time) to put others before himself. Certain theories, however,suggest otherwise. Emotivism and psychological egoism are two such theories. Explain and evaluate the way in which these two theories attempt to show that my friend is correct in his belief. Your discussion should address the following considerations:
-How would emotivists argue that my friend’s belief about his behavior is accurate?
-How would psychological egoists argue that my friend’s belief about his behavior is accurate?
-What sorts of theoretical difficulties might these approaches face?

3. Suppose that Thomas is at the grocery store, and realizes that after paying for his food and other necessities he will have about $5 left over. As he approaches the checkout line, he sees a large box of cat-shaped chocolate truffles (which he would very much enjoy, but does not need)that costs exactly $5. He also sees that the grocery store is collecting donations for a reputable and well-vetted charity specializing in local hunger relief. Thomas decides to buy the candy, and for go making a donation. Evaluate his decision via the respective views of Peter Singer and ethical egoists. Your discussion should address the following considerations:
-How would Singer support his approval/disapproval of Thomas’ decision? What would his argument look like, and how might he defend the premises of this argument?
-How would an ethical egoist support his/her approval of Thomas’ decision? What would his/her argument look like, and how might he/she defend the premises of this argument?
-On what key points might these two theorists disagree, and how might they attack one another’s views?

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1. Singer’s argument and defense for his disapproval
Singer would disapprove of Thomas’ decision, supported by the following argument. The argument’s first premise is that, by making the $5 donation, Thomas is able to help prevent a very bad outcome or ameliorate a very bad state of affairs, specifically the hunger of a local person. The argument’s second premise is that Thomas’ $5 donation would not entail the sacrifice of anything morally significant. The argument’s third premise is a moral principle Singer establishes; this principle states that if a person is by some action able to prevent a very bad outcome or ameliorate a very bad state of affairs, and if that action does not entail some morally significant cost or sacrifice, then the person is morally required to take that action (Singer, 1972, p. 235). The argument’s fourth premise, following from the first three premises, is that...

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