Read and answer the questions carefully. Be thorough. Your grade depends on accuracy so do not be general or vague. Do not quote to explain arguments. You must explain all ideas in your own words. Any evidence of cheating whatsoever will result in an “F” on the entire final, and F in the course and disciplinary action.
Please type and double space your answer to each question, numbering each as below.
Short answer:
1-3 paragraphs, about 100-200 words per paragraph.
Be concise and informed rather than wordy.

1. Explain in your own words what Young means by structural injustice. Explain how the liability model differs from the social responsibility model. Evaluate Young’s argument.
2. In Shue Basic Rights Chapter 6, he argues that the concentric circle of morality is not a reason to refute his theory. Explain Shue’s main reason to show that national loyalty does not limit the duties we have to those who are not our compatriots to such extent there can be no transnational subsistence rights. Is Shue’s main reason to good one for defending strong duties to everyone, irrespective of nationality?
3. What are additive harms, according to Ashford? What are multiplicative harms? What is the relevance of these two types of harms to our duties with respect to global poverty? Explain whether we have the duties as described by Ashford or not. Defend your answer.
4. Explain two of Lichtenberg’s strongest reasons why we cannot rely on people’s altruism as motivations to help the global poor. What is her proposed solution? Does this solution work? Why or why not?

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1. Young’s notion of structural injustice is built from the more fundamental idea that persons have capacities, i.e. abilities or the potential to do, create, work, etc., and needs, such as basic subsistence needs, social and economic needs, etc. Social injustice, then, involves the oppression of persons in ways which block or stymie their exercise and development of their capacities and their expression and fulfilment of their needs, where such oppression occurs in a very specific way: Where injustice on a personal level may involve the individual, personal oppression of one person by another, social injustice operates at a much broader, macro scale; when large swathes of persons are subjected to oppression—of the sort just outlined—systematically, by the way in which their society is and has been configured and structured, and where such social configurations and structures simultaneously benefit other persons, placing those persons in the—either implicit or explicit, personally intended or unintended—position of dominating and exploiting the oppressed, structural injustice is prevalent. Perhaps the prime example of structural injustice is how African Americans have, systematically, less access to opportunity and equal treatment, as a result of ongoing societal structures tracing back to slavery and segregation, by way of structural racism.
The liability model of responsibility—with which most of us are familiar—is unable to account for responsibility for structural injustice. The liability model’s notion of guilt is such that it is ascribed to individuals, groups, or corporations, for voluntary actions which (primarily, most immediately) cause some harm. The chief problem with this...

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