Question

Justice in Republic I-II by Plato
1. Where is the appearance of perfect injustice to be found?
2. Describe the appearance of perfect injustice.
3. Why is perfect injustice thought to be the most beneficial kind of life?
4. What is thought to be justice, so that “perfect injustice” name can be applied to what you described as perfect injustice?
5. According to Socrates, in the soul, what is reason? Describe what it does. (Do not discuss its virtue here)
6. According to Socrates, in the soul, what is spirit? Describe what it does. (Do not discuss its virtue here)
7. According to Socrates, in the soul, what is desire? Describe what it does. (Do not discuss its virtue here)
8. According to Socrates, in the soul, what is wisdom? Describe what it is and what part(s) of the soul it belongs to.
9. According to Socrates, in the soul, what is courage? Describe what it is and what part(s) of the soul it belongs to.
10. According to Socrates, in the soul, what is moderation? Describe what it is and what part(s) of the soul it belongs to.
11. According to Socrates, in the soul, what is justice? Describe what it is and what part(s) of the soul it belongs to.
12. According to Socrates, describe how parts of the soul function when there is justice in the soul.
13. According to Socrates, describe how a person acts when there is justice in the soul.
14. According to Socrates, describe how a person's soul functions when a person achieves what is thought to be perfect injustice.
15. According to Socrates, explain why the life of perfect injustice is most harmful – in truth.
16. Explain how Socratic justice helps us understand the virtue ethics ideal of the golden mean (not too much, not too little) that Aristotle offers. What bout the Socratic ethics helps us understand this Aristotelian point – and how?
17. Explain how Socratic justice helps us understand the virtue ethics ideal of not acting according to rules, but acting as a virtuous person would.
18. What is the rule that Kantian deontology propose, the following of which makes actions moral?
19. What is the value that is the foundation of the Kantian deontology that it seeks to secure and achieve?
20. What is the rule that Utilitarianism proposes, the following of which makes actions moral or immoral?
21. What is the value that is the foundation of Utilitarianism that it seeks to secure and achieve?
22. Which value do you think is most important: Socratic, Kantian, or Utilitarian?
23. Explain your reason for answering as you did in the previous question. Do not discuss your background (Catholic, Jewish, American, etc.), but attempt to answer in terms of what would make sense to any rational being.

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Where is the appearance of perfect injustice to be found?
Socrates and Thrasymachus have a conversation about the nature of justice in Book One of the Republic. Thrasymachus thinks acting justly only benefits the unjust, so why be just at all? According to Thrasymachus, justice is nothing other than the advantage of the stronger, the advantage of those in power. Perfect injustice is to be found, according to Thrasymachus, when one acts in a way that profits oneself, and perfect justice is to be found when one acts in a way that benefits someone else. So, for Thrasymachus, it is more profitable to be completely unjust than to be completely just....

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