QuestionQuestion

For each passage, answer three questions. First, does the passage state a correlation, and if so, where? Second, does the passage state, or imply, a claim about causation, and if so, where? Third, comment on the adequacy of that evidence, with a view to sample size and the issue of correlation and cause.
Question 1
After reading this passage, answer three questions. First, does the passage state a correlation, and if so, where? Second, does the passage state, or imply, a claim about causation, and if so, where? Third, comment on the adequacy of that evidence, with a view to sample size and the issue of correlation and cause:
Background: The following report describes an experiment conducted among University of Colorado undergraduates. Participants received simulated monthly checks and were to declare income and pay tax. On the basis of random audits, it was determined whether they had evaded taxes, and penalties for evasion were imposed.
Everyone was told (correctly) that his own tax rate was 70 percent. One third of the group was told (falsely) that others paid less taxes than they did; one-third was told that others paid more taxes than they did; and the last one-third was told the truth, that its own rates were the same as everyone else’s. Overall the group evaded about one dollar in four of tax. But those who felt they were paying lower rates than everyone else evaded only 12 percent of their tax, while those who felt they were paying more than everyone else evaded nearly one-third of their tax. In the laboratory, and perhaps in life, compliance walks hand in hand with the perception of fairness and equity. Destroy the latter, and whether there are penalties or not, compliance plunges.
Question 2
After reading this passage, answer three questions. First, does the passage state a correlation, and if so, where? Second, does the passage state, or imply, a claim about causation, and if so, where? Third, comment on the adequacy of that evidence, with a view to sample size and the issue of correlation and cause:
Surveying 1,000 post-operative patients recovering from knee-replacement surgery, it was discovered that fully 95 percent of them walked for less than 15 minutes per day. By contrast, a group of 1,000 people who were not in need of joint replacement surgery revealed that only 15 percent walked for less than 15 minutes per day. We can see from this information that there is a negative correlation between walking and the need for joint replacement surgery. We conclude, therefore, that walking can preserve the strength of one’s joints and avoid the need for surgery.
Question 3
After reading this passage, answer three questions. First, does the passage state a correlation, and if so, where? Second, does the passage state, or imply, a claim about causation, and if so, where? Third, comment on the adequacy of that evidence, with a view to sample size and the issue of correlation and cause:
A study by Statistics Canada showed a strong correlation between obesity and watching 21 or more hours per week of television. The prevalence of obesity among women who spent 21 hours or more watching television was 24 percent compared to just 11 percent for those who watched only a few hours a week. (“Study links weight gain to TV,” by Michelle Lang, Calgary Herald June 19, 2008) Suggested explanatory hypothesis: there is a common cause underlying both heavy television watching and obesity, and this is lack of opportunities for exercise and participation in one’s community.

Question 1
Consider the following passage:
As funding for libraries has decreased, proportionately, over the past several decades, the adequacy of library holdings has been sadly affected. Many universities and colleges no longer have collections adequate to support research for student essays, much less advanced research by professors at the institution. The lack of library holdings causes students to turn to the Internet to support their research. That, in turn, leads to carelessness about grammar, spelling, and footnotes and a general decline in the quality of work. So, people who cut funds for libraries have a lot to answer for; their decisions have led directly to deterioration in research by students and professors.
Which fallacy, if any, does the passage commit?
1. The post hoc fallacy
2. Confusing correlation and cause
3. Objectionable cause
4. Causal slippery slope argument
5. There is no fallacy in this passage

Question 2
Consider the following passage:
Hormone replacement therapy prevents coronary heart disease. We know that because a massive study involving thousands of medical records showed a striking correlation bewteen people who hadn't received the therapy and those who died of coronary heart disease. Sign me up!
Which fallacy, if any, does the passage commit?
1. The post hoc fallacy
2. Confusing correlation and cause
3. Objectionable cause
4. Causal slippery slope argument
5. There is no fallacy in this passage

Question 3
Consider the following passage:
A study was recently conducted on male violent offenders. An astonishing 87% of the group were found to be suffering from brain dysfunction. While the…researchers have been concerned mostly with victims of brain dysfunction in their crime studies, Yeudall says it’s possible that brain differences between normal males and females is what causes the huge majority of men in prison.
Which fallacy, if any, does the passage commit?
1. The post hoc fallacy
2. Confusing correlation and cause
3. Objectionable cause
4. Causal slippery slope argument
5. There is no fallacy in this passage

Question 4
Consider the following passage:
If today you can take a thing like evolution and make it a crime to teach it in the public school, tomorrow you can make it a crime to teach it in the private schools, and the next year you can make it a crime to teach it to the hustings or in the church. At the next session you may ban books and the newspapers. Soon you may set Catholic against Protestant and Protestant against Protestant, and try to foist your own religion upon the minds of men. If you can do one you can do the other.
Which fallacy, if any, does the passage commit?
1. The post hoc fallacy
2. Confusing correlation and cause
3. Objectionable cause
4. Causal slippery slope argument
5. There is no fallacy in this passage

Question 5
Consider the following passage:
Let us say it’s a few years hence and all nuclear power plants have been operating safely. But opponents of nuclear power succeed in enforcing a national moratorium on nuclear power. All nuclear power plants are shut down, pending complete re-evaluation in terms of public safety. First this moratorium causes a rush by electric utility companies to obtain more fossil fuels—particularly because oil and gas are in tight supply. Coal prices soar, and the government reacts by setting a price ceiling. Coal supplies dwindle, and power cutbacks are put into effect. Finally, restrictions on burning high sulphur coal are relaxed somewhat, and air pollution rises. Miners, disgruntled over a wage freeze and laxness of employers regarding safety standards, go out on strike. Coal stockpiles diminish, and many power plants are forced to shut down; others, overloaded by power demands, begin to fail. Miners battle with federal troops who have been ordered to take over the mines. A chain of blackouts and brownouts creeps across the nation….
Which fallacy, if any, does the passage commit?
1. The post hoc fallacy
2. Confusing correlation and cause
3. Objectionable cause
4. Causal slippery slope argument
5. There is no fallacy in this passage

Question 6
Consider the following passage:
In October, McDonald’s announced they were reforming their farming practices to make them more humane. In November, sales jumped up. Therefore, the reformation of farming practices caused the sales boost.
Which fallacy, if any, does the passage commit?
1. The post hoc fallacy
2. Confusing correlation and cause
3. Objectionable cause
4. Causal slippery slope argument
5. There is no fallacy in this passage

Question 7
Consider the following passage:
Kainaat fell ill shortly after she took the elevator to the basement. So, going to the basement must have made her ill. I’m not going down there myself!
Which fallacy, if any, does the passage commit?
1. The post hoc fallacy
2. Confusing correlation and cause
3. Objectionable cause
4. Causal slippery slope argument
5. There is no fallacy in this passage

Question 8
Consider the following passage:
It’s easy to see that Hollywood is directly responsible for America’s gun problem. Think about it. By glorifying violence, Hollywood sends the signal to kids that it’s OK to solve your problems by shootinganyone who gets in your way. There’s no other explanation.
Which fallacy, if any, does the passage commit?
1. The post hoc fallacy
2. Confusing correlation and cause
3. Objectionable cause
4. Causal slippery slope argument
5. There is no fallacy in this passage

Question 9
Consider the following passage:
Shortly after President Trump’s recent meeting with North Korean leader Kim Jong Un, North Korea began boosting its nuclear program. The reason is clear. By reaching out to Kim Jong Un, we gave him the message that we were no longer a threat to his program, and so he took it as a signal that we wouldn’t interfere.
1. The post hoc fallacy
2. Confusing correlation and cause
3. Objectionable cause
4. Causal slippery slope argument
5. There is no fallacy in this passage


QUESTION 1
Consider the following argument:
“Suppose that by paying 250 dollars you could go into the largest and most exclusive department store in town and pick out and take home anything you could carry away with you. You would have access to the finest silks, precious jewels, handworked bracelets of gold and platinum, fabulous clothes by the best designers in the world. It would be foolish if you paid your money, walked in, and picked out a piece of bubble gum. Well, that ’s what many college students do, in effect. They pay a nominal amount of money, and by doing so they gain access to some of the greatest treasures of the intellect in the world. Merely by asking, they can discover things that people labored for years to find out. Just by going to class, they can receive the outcome of years of thought and effort of the most outstanding thinkers and scientists the human race has produced. Do they take advantage of this? Often they do not. They merely want to know which courses are the easiest ones, which don’ t have to be taken, and what are the minimum requirements for graduation. For their money they are offered a fortune, but they choose a piece of mental bubble gum."
What is the primary subject of this argument?

1. A person in a large department store who can take anything for a small fee.
2. A student in a university who can learn about almost anything for a small fee
3. Acquiring worthless things when you could acquire valuable things
4. Working hard to advance one's career.

QUESTION 2
Consider the following argument:
“Suppose that by paying 250 dollars you could go into the largest and most exclusive department store in town and pick out and take home anything you could carry away with you. You would have access to the finest silks, precious jewels, handworked bracelets of gold and platinum, fabulous clothes by the best designers in the world. It would be foolish if you paid your money, walked in, and picked out a piece of bubble gum. Well, that ’s what many college students do, in effect. They pay a nominal amount of money, and by doing so they gain access to some of the greatest treasures of the intellect in the world. Merely by asking, they can discover things that people labored for years to find out. Just by going to class, they can receive the outcome of years of thought and effort of the most outstanding thinkers and scientists the human race has produced. Do they take advantage of this? Often they do not. They merely want to know which courses are the easiest ones, which don’ t have to be taken, and what are the minimum requirements for graduation. For their money they are offered a fortune, but they choose a piece of mental bubble gum."
What is the analogue of this argument?
1. A person in a large department store who can take anything for a small fee.
2. A student in a university who can learn about almost anything for a small fee.
3. Acquiring worthless things when you could acquire valuable things.
4. Working hard to advance one's career.


QUESTION 3
Consider the following argument:
“Suppose that by paying 250 dollars you could go into the largest and most exclusive department store in town and pick out and take home anything you could carry away with you. You would have access to the finest silks, precious jewels, handworked bracelets of gold and platinum, fabulous clothes by the best designers in the world. It would be foolish if you paid your money, walked in, and picked out a piece of bubble gum. Well, that ’s what many college students do, in effect. They pay a nominal amount of money, and by doing so they gain access to some of the greatest treasures of the intellect in the world. Merely by asking, they can discover things that people labored for years to find out. Just by going to class, they can receive the outcome of years of thought and effort of the most outstanding thinkers and scientists the human race has produced. Do they take advantage of this? Often they do not. They merely want to know which courses are the easiest ones, which don’ t have to be taken, and what are the minimum requirements for graduation. For their money they are offered a fortune, but they choose a piece of mental bubble gum."
What is the relevant similarity between primary subject and analogue?

1. A person in a large department store who can take anything for a small fee.
2. A student in a university who can learn about almost anything for a small fee.
3. Acquiring worthless things when you could acquire valuable things.
4. Working hard to advance one's career.

Consider the following argument:
“Suppose that by paying 250 dollars you could go into the largest and most exclusive department store in town and pick out and take home anything you could carry away with you. You would have access to the finest silks, precious jewels, handworked bracelets of gold and platinum, fabulous clothes by the best designers in the world. It would be foolish if you paid your money, walked in, and picked out a piece of bubble gum. Well, that ’s what many college students do, in effect. They pay a nominal amount of money, and by doing so they gain access to some of the greatest treasures of the intellect in the world. Merely by asking, they can discover things that people labored for years to find out. Just by going to class, they can receive the outcome of years of thought and effort of the most outstanding thinkers and scientists the human race has produced. Do they take advantage of this? Often they do not. They merely want to know which courses are the easiest ones, which don’ t have to be taken, and what are the minimum requirements for graduation. For their money they are offered a fortune, but they choose a piece of mental bubble gum."
Are there relevant dissimilarities between primary subject and analogue that undermine the argument?

QUESTION 5
Consider the following argument:
“Smokers should be allowed to smoke only in private where it does not offend anyone else. Would any smoker walk into a restaurant and start eating half-chewed food on someone ’s plate, or drink a glass of water that previously held someone’s teeth? Probably not, yet they expect non-smokers to inhale smoke from the recesses of their lungs. My privilege and right is to choose a clean and healthy life without interference."
What is the primary subject of this argument?
1. The fact that smokers expect others to inhale their second-hand smoke.
2. A person eating another person's half-chewed food.
3. One person ingesting what's been inside another person's body.
4. Living life without interference.

QUESTION 6
Copy of
Consider the following argument:
“Smokers should be allowed to smoke only in private where it does not offend anyone else. Would any smoker walk into a restaurant and start eating half-chewed food on someone ’s plate, or drink a glass of water that previously held someone’s teeth? Probably not, yet they expect non-smokers to inhale smoke from the recesses of their lungs. My privilege and right is to choose a clean and healthy life without interference."
What is the analogue of this argument?
1. The fact that smokers expect others to inhale their second-hand smoke.
2. A person eating another person's half-chewed food.
3. One person ingesting what's been inside another person's body.
4. Living life without interference.

QUESTION 7
Consider the following argument:
“Smokers should be allowed to smoke only in private where it does not offend anyone else. Would any smoker walk into a restaurant and start eating half-chewed food on someone ’s plate, or drink a glass of water that previously held someone’s teeth? Probably not, yet they expect non-smokers to inhale smoke from the recesses of their lungs. My privilege and right is to choose a clean and healthy life without interference."
What is the relevant similarity between the primary subject and analogue?
1. The fact that smokers expect others to inhale their second-hand smoke.
2. A person eating another person's half-chewed food.
3. One person ingesting what's been inside another person's body.
4. Living life without interference.

QUESTION 8
Consider the following argument:
“Smokers should be allowed to smoke only in private where it does not offend anyone else. Would any smoker walk into a restaurant and start eating half-chewed food on someone ’s plate, or drink a glass of water that previously held someone’s teeth? Probably not, yet they expect non-smokers to inhale smoke from the recesses of their lungs. My privilege and right is to choose a clean and healthy life without interference."
Are there relevant dissimilarities between primary subject and analogue that undermine the argument?

QUESTION 9
Consider the following argument:
“Women who are upset because they can’t manage childbirth without painkillers say they want a natural birth, and they often feel like lesser persons if they can’t achieve it. This emotion, though common, is deeply irrational in the way it depends on valuing the natural. After all, toothache and appendicitis are perfectly natural, and we don’t value them."
What is the primary subject of this argument?
1. People who are irrational for valuing things that are painful.
2. People who value toothaches and appendicitis even though it's painful.
3. People who feel like lesser persons.
4. Women who value natural childbirth even though it's painful.

QUESTION 10
Consider the following argument:
“Women who are upset because they can’t manage childbirth without painkillers say they want a natural birth, and they often feel like lesser persons if they can’t achieve it. This emotion, though common, is deeply irrational in the way it depends on valuing the natural. After all, toothache and appendicitis are perfectly natural, and we don’t value them."
What is the analogue of this argument?
1. People who are irrational for valuing things that are painful.
2. People who value toothaches and appendicitis even though it's painful.
3. People who feel like lesser persons.
4. Women who value natural childbirth even though it's painful.

QUESTION 11
Consider the following argument:
“Women who are upset because they can’t manage childbirth without painkillers say they want a natural birth, and they often feel like lesser persons if they can’t achieve it. This emotion, though common, is deeply irrational in the way it depends on valuing the natural. After all, toothache and appendicitis are perfectly natural, and we don’t value them."
What is the relevant similarity between the primary subject and analogue?
1. People who are irrational for valuing things that are painful.
2. People who value toothaches and appendicitis even though it's painful.
3. People who feel like lesser persons.
4. Women who value natural childbirth even though it's painful.

QUESTION 12
Consider the following argument:
“Women who are upset because they can’t manage childbirth without painkillers say they want a natural birth, and they often feel like lesser persons if they can’t achieve it. This emotion, though common, is deeply irrational in the way it depends on valuing the natural. After all, toothache and appendicitis are perfectly natural, and we don’t value them.
Are there relevant dissimilarities between primary subject and analogue that undermine the argument?


Question 1
Consider the following passage:
"Background: The following passage is taken from an essay discussing the feasibility of military intervention in the Sudan.
The bombing, the purpose of which is to terrorize the civilian population, is carried out by high-but-slow-flying turboprop aircraft, delivering crude bombs, sometimes simple drums of gasoline with a lighted wick, airborne Molotov cocktails kicked out of the tailgate. Declaring and enforcing a southern no-fly zone, with UN relief flights the only exception, would stop the bombing. A very few high-speed fighter/patrol aircraft could handle the enforcement. An immediate source of danger and terror to civilians in the south would be eliminated and the numbers of displaced radically"
Which fallacy does this passage contain, if any?
1. Fallacy of slippery precedent
2. Fallacy of two wrongs make a right
3. Fallacy of faulty analogy
4. There are no fallacies in this passage

Question 2
Consider the following passage:
The altos and tenors in a choir are like the filling in a sandwich. When you first see a sandwich you notice the bread. And, of course, the taste of a sandwich depends very much on the taste of the bread. But what would a sandwich be without a filling of delicious roast beef, cheese, or peanut butter? Just nothing at all. So the altos and tenors should take care to sing well.
Which fallacy does this passage commit, if any?
1. Fallacy of faulty analogy
2. Fallacy of two wrongs make a right
3. There are no fallacies in the passage
4. Fallacy of slippery precedent

Question 3
Consider the following passage:
"You might not think it's a big deal, that the employee has been taking sticky pads, staples, and white-out home with her to help with her kid's homework. Everyone makes mistakes, they say; don't make a big deal out of it. But if you say that, then consistency demands that you let people off the hook if they steal a wallet out of a desk drawer, or an iPhone. And then - again, if we're consistent - we have to turn a blind eye toward corporate embezzling and consumer fraud. So, it is a big deal to steal sticky pads and staples, even though it might seem like nothing."
Which fallacy does this passage contain, if any?
1. Fallacy of faulty analogy
2. Fallacy of two wrongs make a right
3. Fallacy of slippery precedent
4. There are no fallacies in this passage

Question 4
Consider the following passage:
"The UN loves to accuse Israel of human rights abuses; it's frustrating, then, that it overlooks comparable abuses in Israel's neighbors like Egypt, Jordan, and Lebanon. The UN should stop criticizing Israel and let countries defend themselves as they see fit."
Which fallacy does this passage contain, if any?
1. Fallacy of faulty analogy
2. Fallacy of two wrongs make a right
3. There are no fallacies in this passage
4. Fallacy of slippery precedent
Question 5

Consider the following passage:

"You can see what’s wrong with permitting same-sex marriage if you think about the precedent it sets. Marriage has traditionally been between one man and one woman. If we alter the tradition so that one man can marry another man, and one woman can marry another woman, we are setting ourselves up for more and more modifications. We have a precedent for polygamy: why wouldn’t a man be able to marry two or three or four women? We will even have a precedent for group marriage. Permitting the marriage of one man to another man with whom he is intimately connected is all right in itself, perhaps, but the precedents it sets are terrible. Therefore same-sex marriage should not be permitted."
Which fallacy does this passage contain, if any?
1. Fallacy of two wrongs make a right
2. There are no fallacies in this passage
3. Fallacy of faulty analogy
4. Fallacy of slippery precedent

Question 6
Consider the following passage:
"The city shouldn't be singling out our company's problems with chemical waste storage, when the EPA reports indicate that the city's own landfill has been cited as needing improvements. The council needs to clean up its own mess before it goes after us."
Which fallacy does this passage contain, if any?
1. Fallacy of slippery precedent
2. There are no fallacies in this passage
3. Fallacy of faulty analogy
4. Fallacy of two wrongs make a right

Question 7
Consider the following passage:
Background: The following passage is excerpted from an article in which the author expresses concerns about the Alberta government’s posting, on the Internet, of profiles and videos of children in foster care and hoping to be adopted.
"Amazingly, in only four days, the website has attracted more than 190,000 “hits,” and adoption proceedings have already begun for four children. Promising early results. But one still wants to ask: Are impulse adopters likely to make good parents to these needy children? Many readers will have seen bumper stickers with the message, “A puppy is forever,” the purpose of which is to remind parents that, when they buy a pet for their children after seeing the cuddly critter in a shop window, they are then stuck in caring for it long after the initial excitement has worn thin. The same applies, sure, but to an even greater degree, when one is deciding to adopt a child. If the number of adopting families is increased by recruiting parents whose commitment is shallow and poorly thought out, the fate of the adoptees could approximate the fate of those unwanted pets who end up at the city pound a few months after Christmas. One must wonder, therefore, whether the Alberta government has properly researched such important issues."
Which fallacy does this passage contain, if any?
1. There are no fallacies in this passage
2. Fallacy of two wrongs make a right
3. Fallacy of slippery precedent
4. Fallacy of faulty analogy

Discussion Topic: Gay rights and the race analogy
Recently, the Supreme Court considered the case of a Colorado baker who refused to bake a cake for a same-sex wedding couple, on the grounds of his religious beliefs. The court had to decide whether or not his actions violated the state’s anti-discrimination law. Many people thought the baker’s actions should be illegal, on the grounds of an argument by analogy to racism:
1. If you refuse to bake a wedding cake for an interracial couple, that would be an illegal form of discrimination.
2. Refusing to bake a cake for a same-sex marriage is relevantly similar to refusing to bake a cake for an interracial couple.
Therefore,
3. If you refuse to bake a wedding cake for an same-sex couple, that ought to be an illegal form of discrimination, too.
Recently, the philosopher John Corvino criticized this argument on the grounds that there are relevant dissimilarities between the two cases. Specifically, he says that African Americans have faced “pervasive, state-sponsored, and socially intractable” discrimination to an extent that LGBTQ individuals haven’t, and so you shouldn’t lump the two cases together. The entire article is worth reading.
Using what you’ve learned in class, is this a cogent argument by analogy?
Your post should be at least 75 words (roughly a paragraph or 5 sentences), but you're free to go longer.

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1. Yes, the passage states a correlation, here: “…those who felt they were paying lower rates than everyone else evaded only 12 percent of their tax, while those who felt they were paying more than everyone else evaded nearly one-third of their tax.” And here: “In the laboratory, and perhaps in life, compliance walks hand in hand with the perception of fairness and equity.”
Yes, the passage states or implies a claim about causation, here: “Destroy the [perception of fairness and equity], and whether there are penalties or not, compliance plunges.”
Questions can be raised about whether U. Colorado undergraduates are representative of taxpayers in general. There is also no information about how many undergraduates participated. Questions can also be raised about whether perception of fairness and equity was the only or primary causal factor for evasion. For example, could the absolute value of taxes paid be a factor? Or, were there differences in the way in which participants in the different groups were told about their tax rates?

2. Yes, the passage states a correlation, here: “Surveying 1,000 post-operative patients recovering from knee-replacement surgery, it was discovered that fully 95 percent of them walked for less than 15 minutes per day.”
Yes, the passage states or implies a claim about causation, here: “We conclude, therefore, that walking can preserve the strength of one’s joints and avoid the need for surgery.”
While the sample size of 1000 may be adequate, the study’s use of post-operative patients recovering from knee-replacement surgery is baffling; these patients were likely walking so little because they were recovering from knee-replacement surgery. If the passage is read more charitably and if it is assumed that the opening line refers to these post-operative patients’ level of walking historically prior to surgery, a little more credence could be given to the findings. However, there is no mention of the number of years any of the walkers walked less than or more than 15 minutes a day, or under what conditions; it seems reasonable to think that walking for more than 15 minutes a day, for years on end, on a hard warehouse floor, could cause the need for knee-replacement surgery.

3. Yes, the passage states a correlation, here: “The prevalence of obesity among women who spent 21 hours or more watching television was 24 percent compared to just 11 percent for those who watched only a few hours a week.”
Yes, the passage states or implies a claim about causation, but not directly between time spent watching television and obesity: “there is a common cause underlying both heavy television watching and obesity…”
The passage makes no mention of sample size or any other aspects of study design, so there is no way to evaluate the quality of this causal inductive argument in those terms. However, the study does not make the common mistake of too-quickly assuming or assigning causality between corollaries; instead, the study is sensibly conservative in considering the possibility that a third factor underlies the correlation observed.

Question1
3. Objectionable cause
Question2:
2. Confusing correlation and cause...

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