QuestionQuestion

1. True or false?
a. If an argument has a false conclusion, then it is an unsuccessful argument.
b. If an argument is successful, then it is valid.
c. If an argument is sound, then it is successful.
d. If you have logically consistent beliefs, then no successful argument can be made
against you.
e. Successful probabilistic arguments are valid arguments.

2. Multiple Choice.
a. Which one of the following arguments is valid?
i. 2+2=4. The sun is larger than the moon. Therefore Barack Obama is President of the United States.
ii. Rob always beats Paul. Paul always beats Joe. Therefore Rob always beats Joe.
iii. Pegasus flies. Pegasus does not fly. Therefore Jesus walks on water.
iv. Beggars can’t be choosers. Therefore beggars do not have free will.

b. Which one of the following arguments is unsound?
i. Socrates was Greek. All Greeks were human. Therefore Socrates was human.
ii. Tasmania is an island. Therefore, either it is raining or it isn’t raining.
iii. Pegasus flies. Pegasus does not fly. Therefore Jesus walked on water.
iv. Rob is taller than Paul. Paul is taller than Joe. Therefore Rob is taller than Joe.

3. Argument One
Consider the following argument:
Define ‘causal reality’ to be the sum of all causes and causings: if A causes B, then A, B, and A’s causing B are all parts of causal reality.
1. Every whole contingent domain has a cause.
2. Causal reality is a wholly contingent domain.
3. Therefore, causal reality has a cause.

Answer the following questions:
a. Can the premises of this argument be true together?
b. Explain your answer to the previous question
4. Argument Two

Consider the following argument:
Define ‘natural reality’ to be the sum of all natural causes and causings. If A is natural, and A causes B, then A, B, and A’s causing B are all parts of natural reality.
1. Every wholly contingent domain has a cause.
2. Natural reality is a wholly contingent domain.
3. Therefore natural reality has a cause.

Answer the following questions:
a. Suppose that natural reality is just causal reality. Can the premises of this second
argument be true together?
b. Explain your answer to the previous question.
c. Can this second argument be successful against someone who thinks that natural
reality is just causal reality?
d. Explain your answer to the previous question.

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1. a. False. It can be valid but not sound -- argumeng must be both valid and sound to be a successful argument.
b. False to be successful it has to both sound and valid. An argument can be valid but not sound.
c. False -- it has to be both sound and valid to be successful.
d. False A valid and sound argument can be made to counter another successful logically consistent belief.
e.True. If the conditional premises make logical sense...
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