QuestionQuestion

After reading Nickles, Rationalism vs. Empiricism, Hatfield, Rene Descartes and Descartes, Meditations, please respond to the 5 questions listed below. There is no word length, but in general you should ensure that you answer EACH question (separately), writing as much as is required by the specifics of each question, while simultaneously keeping your answers brief and to the point. For the answers, it is important to give your own examples for each problem where the question asks for such examples, otherwise, i will not receive credit for the response.

1. In what way do dreams serve as a basis for doubt as discussed by Descartes within the First Meditation?
2. Read the Second Meditation, then explain why it is that we encounter a contradiction in the attempt to doubt our own existence.
3. Read what Descartes has to say about the different kinds of ideas in the Third Meditation, then give your OWN examples of each kind of idea.
4. Read the remaining Meditations, then explain why God is necessarily good.
5. Read David Hume’s Abstract, then explain the difference between the objects of sense and of reflection are. Give an example of each.

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1. In what way do dreams serve as a basis for doubt as discussed by Descartes within the First Meditation?

To properly, yet succinctly, answer this question, some context is required. It bears remembering that Descartes’ project is to locate firm epistemic foundations upon which the edifice of knowledge is to be (re)constructed – where ‘firm’ refers to the ‘certainty’ of knowledge unassailable or unsusceptible to doubt. A little more specifically, the plan is to test various modes of knowledge by examining whether the reasons—the justification—for holding the beliefs constituent of knowledge can be called into question. And, given the inclination to say and think that knowledge is in great part about the ‘outside’ world, and that, in good empiricist fashion, such knowledge comes to us via the testimony of our senses, a natural place to start is to consider the justification for believing what our senses tell us of that external world. It boils down to this: what reasons do I have for thinking that the picture painted by my senses is an accurate depiction of the world, especially given (the assumption) I have no other non-sensory means of verification?
But then, if one is looking for the efficiency of devastating doubt, a questions occurs: could the picture of the outside world I am presented have absolutely no connection to the outside world? For, there is a mental state in which I experience sensory stories—at the time, plausible, compelling, convincing stories—of...
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