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Respond to the following questions:

1. What is the basis of Kant’s so-called “Copernican Turn” in philosophy?

2. According to Kant, in his opposition to metaphysics, what is the main concept that David Hume challenges?

3. What is the difference between analytic and synthetic judgments? Give examples.

4. Metaphysics deals with which kind of judgments?

5. For Kant, arithmetic and geometry find their foundation on the basis of our intuition into what?

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The basis of Kant’s so-called “Copernican Turn” can be traced ultimately to the very conservative, Enlightenment project of maintaining the priority of human reason while retaining morality and various religious tenets such as the existence of God and the soul. The difficulty in such reconciliation was to be found by way of the source of the Enlightenment itself, mechanistic science, in which there seemed at first (and repeated) glance to be no room for essentially non-mechanistic things such as the soul and freedom of the will. Kant put forward his first major attempt at solving this riddle in his Inaugural Dissertation. He posited two realms, the sensible world, of which Newtonian physics is true, and the intelligible world of moral principles and religious truths. The sensible world is known to us by our “sensibility”, our senses, and the intelligible world is known to us a priori by our understanding. Further, our grasping of the intelligible world provides us standards by which to judge the sensible world, partly because the sensible world...
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