Subject Philosophy Philosophy - Other

Question

Respond to the following:

1. First, explain the nature of space and time and according to the classical metaphysics view (i.e.. Horrigan). Then, discuss the Kantian transformation of the nature of space and time according to his transcendental idealism.
2. According to Descartes (in the Meditations), even though we can doubt the existence of the world, he nonetheless affirms that the world does in fact exist. Upon what basis is he able to do this? Be informative in your explanation.
3. According to Heidegger, classical metaphysics holds three fundamental positions with respect to the concept of being, viz, that being is: (1) the most universal concept. (2) completely indefinable and (3)) entirely self-evident (i.e, better known to us) Based upon your understanding of classical metaphysics as learned in this class (i.e. Horrigan), offer an explanation for these three respective classical positions.
4. Within the Prolegomena, Kant suggests that although metaphysics is not “possible”. Based upon your reading of Kant (and the associated articles on his work) explain why this is the case.
5. Although Kant limits the possibilities of metaphysics, he nonetheless saves mathematics and science from the destructive criticism of Hume. Based upon your study of both Hume and Kant, in what ways is this the case?

Solution Preview

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Even if we take the “classical metaphysics view” to be significantly different to the Kantian transformation of the nature of space and time, and thus use the distinction as a demarcating line, it would be a mistake to think of the classical position as monolithic. On the contrary, Kant’s view could be seen as a contribution to a slate of views with widely varying features. The non-Kantian, “classical” views could be taken to break down according to these criteria: whether or not space and time are objective, real; whether or not space and time are independent finite/infinite substances or dependent properties (accidents) of substances (and, perhaps, thereby as having some connection to first causes, universals, and God); whether space in particular is relational and exists solely in the interrelations between objects or persists independently of objects...

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